John Stuart Mill

Mill's Empiricism:

(1) Mill wants to adopt the standards of evidence which have led to progress in the sciences so he believes that appeal to experience are the way to support claims about ethics. In this respect Mill is in the tradition of Hume

(2) Parallels between. natural and moral philosophy in Mill: Claims about knowledge (wht we ought to believe) are justified by appeals to observational facts which rest on perception. Perception is what is given in experience. Claims about ethics (what we ought to do) are justified by appeals to facts about utility (happiness) which are based on what people desire for its own sake. What people do desire is what is given in experience. In both natural and moral philosophy claims must be justified by appeals to experience.

I General Remarks

Mill's discussion of the Categorical Imperative (P.4) There is no contradiction, neither a logical nor a physical impossibility, in the adoption of "outrageously immoral rules of conduct" It is only the consequences of such actions which justify the rational choice not to adopt such rules.

II What Utilitarianism Is

III On The Ultimate Sanction Of The Principle Of Utility

IV Of What Sort Of Proof The Principle Of Utility Is Susceptible

V On The Connection Between Justice And Utility