CANDIDATE ASSESSMENT & POLITICAL INFORMATION PROCESSING

Selected Bibliography
Allan Louden, Wake Forest University (louden@wfu.edu)
Last Updated:

Aalberg, T., & Jenssen, A. T. (2007). Gender Stereotyping of Political Candidates. NORDICOM Review, 28, 17-32.

Abelson, R. P., Kinder, D. R., Peters, M. D., & Fiske, S. T. (1982). Affective and semantic components in political person perception. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 619-630.

Abramowitz, A. L. (1989). Viability, electability, and candidate choice in a presidential primary election: A test of competing models. Journal of Politics, 51, 977-992.

Ahlering, R. F. (1987). Need for cognition, attitudes, and the 1984 presidential election. Journal of Research in Personality, 21, 100-102.

Ahlering, R. F. (1987). Predicting voting choice from within-versus across-subject attitudes. Journal of Psychology, 121, 623-627.

Aldrich, J. H., Sullivan, J. A., & Borgida, E. (1989). Foreign affairs and issue voting: Do presidential candidates "waltz before a blind audience?" American Political Science Review, 83, 123-141.

Anderson, J. A., & Avery, R. K. (1978). An analysis of changes in voter perception of candidate's positions. Communication Monographs, 45, 354-361.

Anderson, P. A., & Kibler, R. J. (1978). Candidate valence as a predictor of voter preference. Human Communication Research, 5, 4-14.

Anderson, R. O. (1973). The characterization model for rhetorical criticism of political image campaigns. Journal of Western Speech, 37, 75-86.

Antczak, F. J., & Stuckey, M. E. (1995). The battle of issues and images: Establishing interpretive dominance. In K. E. Kendall (Ed.), Presidential campaign discourse (pp. 117-134). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Atkin, C. K. (1981). Political campaigns: Mass communication and persuasion. In M. E. Roloff & G. R. Miller (Eds.), Persuasion: New directions in theory and research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Austin, E. W., & Pinkleton, B. E. (2001). The role of parental mediation in the political socialization process. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 45, 221-240.

Aylor, B. (1999). Source credibility and presidential candidates in 1996: The changing nature of character and empathy evaluations. Communication Research Reports, 16, 296-304.

Bailenson, J. N., Garland, J., Iyengar, S., and Yee, N. (2005). Transformed facial similarity as a political cue: A preliminary investigation. Political Communication Lab, Stanford. http://pcl.stanford.edu/

Bartels, L. (1985). Expectations and preferences in presidential nominating campaigns. American Political Science Review, 79, 804-815.

Bassili, J. N. (1995).Response latency and the accessibility of voting intentions: What contributes to accessibility and how it affects vote choice. Personal and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 686-695.

Beck. P. A. (1991). Voters' intermediation environments in the 1988 presidential contest. Public Opinion Quarterly, 55, 371-394.

Benders, D. A., & Fabj, V. (1994). Perceived control and the Clinton Presidency: Political discourse in an alienated age. American Behavioral Scientist, 37, 211-224.

Beniger, J. R. (1990). Changing technologies, mass media, and control of the pictures in people's heads: A preliminary look at U.S. presidential campaign slogans, 1800-1984. In S. Kraus (Ed.), Mass Communication and political information processing, (pp. 149-169), Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Berinsky, A. J., & Kinder, D. R. (2006). Making sense of issues through media frames: Understanding the Kosovo crisis. Journal of Politics, 68, 640–656.

Bennett, W. L. (1981). Perception and cognition: An information processing framework for politics. In S. Long (Ed.), The handbook of political behavior, Vol.1. New York: Plenum Press.

Benoit, W. L., & McHale, J. P. (2004). Presidential candidates' personal qualities: Computer content analysis. Presidential candidate images (pp. 49-63). In K. L. Hacker (Ed.). New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Benoit, W. L., & McHale, J. P. (2003). Presidential candidates' television spots and personal qualities. Southern Communication Journal, 68, 319-334.

Berent, M. K., & Krosnick, J. K. (1995). The relation between political attitude importance and knowledge structure. In M. Lodge and K. M. McGraw (Eds.), Political Judgment: Structure and Processes (pp. 91-109). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Bishop, G. F., Oldendick, R. W., & Tuchfarber, J. J. (1982). Political information processing: Questions order and context effects. Political Behavior, 4, 177-200.

Blais, A., Nevitte, N., Gidengil, E., Nadeau, R. (2000). Do people have feelings toward leaders about whom they say they know nothing about. Public Opinion Quarterly, 64, 452-463.

Bolland, J. M. (1985). The structure of political cognition: A new approach to its meaning and measurement. Political Behavior, 7, 248-265.

Books, J. W., & Prysby, C. L. (1991). Political behavior and the local context. Praeger.

Bowes, J. E., & Strentz, H. (1978). Candidate images: Stereotyping and the 1976 debates. In B. D. Ruben (Ed.), Communication Yearbook 2 (pp. 391-406). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

Brady, H. E., & Sniderman, P. M. (1985). Attitude attribution: A group basis for political reasoning. American Political Science Review, 79, 1061-78.

Brent, E. & Granberg, D. (1982). Subjective agreement with the presidential candidates of 1976 and 1980. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 393-403.

Brewer, P. R. (2002). Framing, values words, and citizens' explanations of their issue opinions. Political Communication, 19, 303-316.

Boynton G. R. (1995). Computational modeling: A computational model of a survey respondent. In M. Lodge & McGraw, G. R. (Eds.), Political judgment: Structure and process. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Boynton, G. R., & Lodge, M. (1994). Voterís image of candidates. In A. H. Miller & B. E. Gronbeck (Eds.), Presidential campaigning and America's self images (pp. 176-189). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Brody, R. A., Page, B. I. (1973). Indifference, alienation and rational decisions: The effects of candidate evaluations on turnout and the vote. Public Choice, 15, 1-17.

Buchanan, B. (1988). Sizing up candidates. PS: Political Science and Politics, 21, 263-268.

Bucy, E. (2000). Emotional and evaluative consequences of inappropriate leader displays. Communication Research, 27, 194-226.

Bucy, E. P., & Newhagen, J. E. (1999). The emotional appropriateness heuristic: processing televised reactions to news. Journal of Communication, 49, 59-79.

Bucy, E. P., & Bradley, S. D. (2004). Presidential expression and viewer emotion: Counterempathic responses to televised leader displays. Social Science Information, 43, 59–94.

Bucy, E. P., & Newhagen, J. E. (1999). The micro- and Macrodrama of politics on television: Effects of media format on candidate evaluations. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 43, 193-210.

Carlson, J. M., & Dolan, K. (1985). The waffle phenomenon and candidatesí image. Psychological Reports, 57, 795-798.

Carlson, R., & Brincka, J. (1987). Studies in script theory: III. Ideology and political imagination. Political Psychology, 8, 563-574.

Chaffee, S. H., & Miyo, Y. (1983). Selective exposure and the reinforcement hypothesis: An intergenerational panel study of the 1980 presidential campaign. Communication Research, 10, 3-36.

Christ, W. G. (1985). Voter preference and emotion: Using emotional response to classify decided and undecided voters. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 15, 237-254.

Cobb, M. C., Brendan Nyhan, B., & Reifler, J. (2012). Beliefs don't always persevere: How political figures are punished when positive information about them is discredited. Political Psychology. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-9221.2012.00934.x/abstract

Conover, P. J. (1981). Political cues and the perception of candidates. American Politics Quarterly, 9, 427-448.

Conover, P. J., & Feldman, S. (1980). Belief system organization in the American electorate: An alternative approach. In J. C. Pierce & J. L. Sullivan (Eds). The electorate reconsidered. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Conover, P. J., & Feldman, S. (1981). The origins and meaning of liberal/conservative self-identifications. Journal of Political Science, 25, 617-645.

Conover, P. J., & Feldman, S. (1984). How people organize the political world: A schematic model. American Journal of Political Science, 28, 95-123.

Conover, P. J., & Feldman, S. (1986). Emotional reactions to the economy: I'm mad as hell and I'm not going to take it anymore. American Journal of Political Science, 30, 50-78.

Conover, P. J., & Feldman, S. (1986). The role of inference in the perception of political candidates. In R. R. Lau & D. O. Sears (Eds.), Political cognition: The 19th annual Carnegie Symposium on Cognition (pp. 127-158). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Conover, P. J., & Feldman, S. (1989). Candidate perception in an ambiguous world: Campaigns, cues, and inference processes. American Journal of Political Science, 33, 912-940.

Converse, P. E. (1964). The nature of belief systems in mass publics. In D. E. Apter (Ed.), Ideology and discontent. New York: Free Press.

Craig, S. C., Martinez, M. D. Kane, J G. (1999). The structure of political competition: Dimensions of candidate and group evaluation revisited. Political Behavior, 21, . 283-304

Crigler, A. N. (Ed.) The psychology of political communication. Ann Arbor, MI: Univ. of Michigan Press.

Cundy, D. T. (1994). Televised news, trait inferences, and support for political figures. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic media, 38, 49-63.

Cundy, D. T. (1989). Televised political editorials and the low-involvement viewer. Social Science Quarterly, 70, 911- .

Cundy, D. T. (1979). Affect, cue-giving and political attitude formation: Survey evidence in support of a social conditioning interpretation. Journal of Politics, 41, 75-105.

Dimock, M. A., & Popkin, S. L. (1997). Political knowledge in comparative perspective. In S. Iyengar & R. Reeves (Eds.) Do the media govern? Politicians, voters, and reporters in America (pp. 217-224). Thousand Oak, CA: Sage.

Dolan, K. A., & Holbrook, T. M. (2001). Knowing versus caring: The role of affect and cognition in political perception. Political Psychology, 22, 27-44.

Domke, D., Shah, D. V., & Wackman, D. (1998). Media priming effects: Accessibility, association, and activation. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 1, 51-74.

Domke, D., Shah, D. V., & Wackman, D. (1998). "Moral referendums": Values, news media, and the process of candidate choice. Political Communication, 15, 301-321.

Douglas, J. (1972). The verbal image: Student perceptions of political figures. Speech monographs, 39, 1-15.

Domke, D., & Shah, D. V. (1995). Interpretation of issues and voter decision-making strategies: A new perceptive on :issue-oriented" election coverage. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 72, 45-71.

Domke, D., Shah, D. V., & Wackman, D. B.(1998). "Moral referendums": Values, news media, and the process of candidate choice. Political Communication, 15, 301-321.

Duck, J. M., Terry, D. J., Hogg, M. A. (1998). Perceptions of a media campaign: The role of social identity and the changing intergroup context. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 3-16.

Elliott, W. R., & Sothirajah, J. (1993). Post-debate analysis and media reliance: Influences on candidate image and voting probabilities. Journalism Quarterly, 70, 321-335.

Entman, R. M. (1994). Representation and reality in the portrayal of Blacks on network television news. Journalism Quarterly, 71, 509-520.

Feldman, S. (1988). Structure and consistency in public opinion: The role of core beliefs and values. American Journal of Political Science, 32, 416-440.

Ferejohn, J. A., & Kuklinski, J. H. (Eds). (1990). Information and democratic processes. Urbana, IL: Univ. of Illinois Press.

Finn, S. (1987). Electoral information flow and students' information processing: A computerized panel study. In M. L. McLaughlin (Ed.), Communication Yearbook 10 (pp. 517-532). Newberry Park, CA: Sage.

Fiske, S. T., & Kinder, D. R. (1981). Involvement, expertise, and schema use: Evidence from political cognition. In N. Cantor & J. F. Kihlstrom (Eds.), Personality, cognition and social interaction. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Fiske, S. T., Kinder, D. R., & Larter, W. M. (1983). The novice and the expert: knowledge-based strategies in political cognition. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 19, 381-400.

Fredin, E. S., Kosicki, G. M., & Becker, L. B. (1996). Cognitive strategies for media use during a presidential campaign. Political Communication, 13, 23-42

Funk, C. L. (1999). Bringing the candidate into models of candidate evaluation, Journal of Politics, 61, 700-720.

Gant, M. M. (1983). Citizens' evaluation of the 1980 presidential candidates: Influence on campaign strategy. American Politics Quarterly, 11, 327-348.

Garramone, G. M. (1985). Motivation and political information processing: Extending the gratification approach. In S. Kraus & R. M. Perloff (Eds.), Mass media and political thought: An information-processing approach (pp. 201-219). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Garramone, G. M. (1986). Candidate image formation: The role of information processing. In L. L. Kaid, D. Nimmo, & K. R. Sanders (Eds.), New perspectives on political advertising (pp. 325-247). Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.

Gastil, J., & Dillard, J. P. (1999). Increasing sophistication through public deliberation. Political Communication, 16, 3-23.

Gilens, M. (1996b). "Race coding" and White opposition to welfare. American Political Science Review, 90, 593-604.

Glass, D. P. (1985). Evaluating presidential candidates: Who focuses on their personal qualities. Public Opinion Quarterly, 49, 517-534.

Golden, J. L. (1997). The issue character in the presidential contest of 1996. American Behavioral Scientist, 40, 994-1000.

Graber, D. A. (2001). Processing politics: Leaning from television in the Internet age. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Graber, D. A. (1996). Whither research on the psychology of political communication. In A. N. Crigler (Ed.), The psychology of political communication (pp. 211-224). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Graber, D. A. (1994). Why voters fail information tests: Can the hurdles be overcome? Political Communication, 11, 331-346.

Graber, D. A. (1989). An information processing approach to public opinion analysis. In B. Dervin, L. Grossberg, B. J. O'Keefe, & E. Wartella (Eds), Rethinking communication, Volume 2 Paradigm exemplars (pp. 103-116). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Graber, D. A. (1984). Processing the news: How people tame the information tide. New York: Longman.

Graber, D. (1972). Personal qualities in presidential images: The contribution of the press. Midwest Journal of Political Science, 16, 46-76.

Granberg, D., & Brent. E. (1980). Perceptions of issue positions of Presidential candidates. American Scientist, 68, 617-625.

Granberg, D., & Brown, T. A. (1989). On affect and cognition in politics. Social Psychology Quarterly, 52, 171-183.

Granberg, D., Harris, W., & King, M. (1981). Assimilation but little contrast in the 1976 U. S. Presidential election. Journal of Psychology, 108, 241-247.

Grandjean, B. D., & Proffitt, J. M. (2001). Political communication and statistical interaction: Reexamining issue, image, involvement, and interpersonal conversation. Mass Communication & Society, 4, 455-464.

Hacker, K. L. (Ed.) (2004). Presidential candidate images. New York: Rowman & Littlefield.

Hacker, K. L. (2004). A duel-processing perspective of candidate image formation (pp. 105-132). In K. Hacker (Ed.), Presidential candidate images. New York: Rowman & Littlefield.

Hacker, K. L. (2004). Introduction: The continued importance of the candidate image construct (pp. 1-19). In K. Hacker (Ed.), Presidential candidate images. New York: Rowman & Littlefield.

Hacker, K. L. (2004). Using cognitive measures for analysis of candidate images (pp. 211-229). In K. Hacker (Ed.), Presidential candidate images. New York: Rowman & Littlefield.

Hacker, K. L. (Ed.) (1995). Candidate images in presidential elections. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Hacker, K. L. (1995). Interpersonal communication and the construction of candidate images. In K. L. Hacker (Ed.) Candidate images in presidential elections (pp. 65-82), Westport, CT: Praeger.

Hacker, K. L. (1995). Linguistic discourse analysis of candidate image formulation. In K. L. Hacker (Ed.) Candidate images in presidential elections (pp. 153-162), Westport, CT: Praeger.

Hacker, K. L., Freedman, E. G., & Bergvall, V. (1990, June). Discourse formulations and cognitive representations of George Bush and Michael Dukakis: A discourse analysis of voters' constructions of political images in 1988. Paper presented at the meeting of the International Communication Association. Dublin, Ireland.

Hacker, K. L., Zakahi, W. R., Giles, M. J., & McQuitty, S. (2000). Components of candidate images: Statistical analysis of the issue-persona dichotomy in the presidential campaign of 1966. Communication Monographs, 67, 227-238.

Hanson, D. J. (1989). Authoritarianism and candidate preference in the 1988 presidential election. Psychological Reports, 64, 914-.

Harrison, T. M., Stephen, T. D., Husson, W., & Fehr, B. J. (1991). Images versus issues in the 1984 presidential election: Differences between men and women. Human Communication Research, 18, 209-227.

Hellweg, S. A. (2004). Campaigns and candidate images in American presidential elections (pp. 21-47). In K. Hacker (Ed.), Presidential candidate images. New York: Rowman & Littlefield.

Hellweg, S. A. (1995). Campaign and candidate images in American presidential elections. In K. Hacker (Ed.), Candidate images in presidential elections (pp. 1-17). Westport, CT: Praeger.

Hellweg, S. A. (1979). An examination of voter conceptualizations of the ideal political candidate. Southern Speech Communication Journal, 44, 373-385.

Hellweg, S. A., Dionisiopoulos, G. N., & Kugler, D. B. (1989). Political candidate image: A state-of-the-art review. In B. Dervin & M. J. Voight (Eds.). Progress in communication Sciences, Vol. 9 (pp. 43-78). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Hellweg, S. A., & King, S. W. (1983). Comparative evaluation of political candidates: Implications for the voter decision-making process. Central States Speech Journal, 34, 134-138.

Hellweg, S. A., King, S. W., & Williams, S. E. (1988). Comparative candidate evaluation as a function of election level and candidate incumbency. Communication Reports, 1, 76-85.

Hellweg, S. A., & Spitzberg, B. H. (2004). Meta-analysis of presidential candidate images (pp. 197-209). In K. Hacker (Ed.), Presidential candidate images. New York: Rowman & Littlefield.

Hellweg, S. A., & Spitzberg, B. H. (1995). Meta-analysis of candidate images. In K. L. Hacker (Ed.) Candidate images in presidential elections (pp. 123-130), Westport, CT: Praeger.

Hellweg, S. A., & Williams, S. E. (1986, May). Comparative candidate evaluation as a function of election level and candidate incumbency. Paper presented at the meeting of the International Communication Association. Chicago, Illinois.

Hetherington, M. J. (1996). The media's role in forming voters' national economic evaluations in 1992. American Journal of Political Science, 40, 372-395.

Hillygus, D. S., & Shieds, T. G. (2008). The persuadable voter: Wedge issues in presidential campaigns. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Holbrook, A. L., Drosnick, J. A., Visser, P. S., Gardner, W. L., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2001). American Journal of Political Science, 45, 930-950.

Hurwitz, J., & Peffley, M. (1997). Public perceptions of race and crime: The role of racial stereotypes. American Journal of Political Science, 41, 375-401.

Husson, W., Stephen, T., Harrison, T. M., & Fehr, B. J. (1988). An interpersonal communication perspective on images of political candidates. Human Communication Research, 14, 397-421.

Iyengar, S., Kinder, D. R., Peters, M. D., & Drosnik, J. A. (1984). The evening news and presidential evaluations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 778-787.

Jacobson, G. C. (2012). The president's effect on partisan attitudes. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 42. 683–718.

Jamieson, K. H., Hagen, M. G., Orr, D., Sillaman, L., Morse, S., & Kirn, K (2000). What did the leading candidates say, and did it matter? Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 572, 12-16.

Jennings, K. M. (1996). Political knowledge over time and across generations. Public Opinion Quarterly, 60, 228-252.

Johnston, D. (1989). Image and issue political information: Message content or interpretation? Journalism Quarterly, 66, 397-382.

Judd, C. M., & Downing, J. W. (1995). Stereotypic accuracy in judgments of the political positions of groups and individuals. In M. Lodge and K. M. McGraw (Eds.), Political Judgment: Structure and Processes (pp. 65-89). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Judd, C. M., & Krosnick, J. A. (1989). The structural bases of consistency among political attitudes: Effects of political expertise and attitude importance. In A. R. Pratkanis, S. J. Breckler, & A. G. Greenwald (Eds.), Attitude structure and function (pp. 99-128). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Just, M. R., Crigler, A. N., & Neuman, W. R. (1996). In A. N. Crigler (Ed.), The psychology of political communication (pp. 133-148). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Kaid, L. L. (2004. Measuring candidate images with semantic differentials (pp. 231-235). In K. Hacker (Ed.), Presidential candidate images. New York: Rowman & Littlefield.

Kaid, L. L. (1995). Measuring candidate images with semantic differentials. In K. L. Hacker (Ed.) Candidate images in presidential elections (pp. 131-124), Westport, CT: Praeger.

Kaid, L. L. (1977). The neglected candidate: Interpersonal communication in political campaigns. Western Journal of Speech Communication, 4, 245-252.

Kaid, L. L., & Hirsch, R. O. (1973). Selective exposure and candidate image: A field study over time. Central States Speech Journal, 24, 48-51.

Keeter, S. (1987). The illusion of intimacy: Television and the role of candidate personal qualities in voter choice. Public Opinion Quarterly, 51, 344-357.

Kendall, K. E., & Paine, S. C. (1995). Political images and voting decisions. In K. L. Hacker (Ed.) Candidate images in presidential elections (pp. 19-36), Westport, CT: Praeger.

Kendall, K. E., & Yum, J. O. (1984). Persuading the blue-collar voter: Issues, images, and homophily. In R. N. Bostrom (Ed.), Communication Yearbook 8 (pp. 707-722). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Kennamer, J. D., & Chaffee, S. H. (1982). Communication of political information during early presidential primaries: Cognition, affect, and uncertainty. In M. Burgoon (Ed.). Communication yearbook 5 (pp. 627-650). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.

Kenney, P. J. (1993). An examination of how voters form impressions of candidates' issue positions during the nomination campaign. Political Behavior, 15, 265- .

Kenski, K., & Jamieson, K. H. (2006). Issue knowledge and perceptions of agreement in the 2004 presidential general election Presidential Studies Quarterly, 36, 243-259.

Kimsey, W. D., & Atwood, L. E. (1979). A path analysis of political cognitions and attitudes, communication and voting in a congressional campaign. Communication Monographs, 46, 219-230.

Kinder, D. R. (1986). Presidential character revisited. In R. R. Lau and D. O. Sears (Eds.), Political Cognition (pp. 233-255). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Kinder, D. (1978). Political person perception: The asymmetrical influence of sentiment and choice on perceptions of presidential candidates. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 859-871.

Kinder, D. R., Peters, M. D., Abelson, R. P., & Fiske, S. T. (1980). Presidential prototypes. Political Behavior, 4, 315-337.

Kiousis, S., Bantimaroudis, P., & Ban, H. (1999). Candidate Image Attributes: Experiments on the substantive dimension of second level agenda setting. Communication Research, 26, 414-428.

Kjeldahl, W. O., Carmichael, C. W., & Mertz, R. J. (1971). Factors in a presidential candidate's image. Speech Monographs, 38, 129-131.

Klein, J. G. (1996). Negativity in impressions of presidential candidates revisited: The 1992 election. Personality and social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 288-295.

Knight, K. (1984). The dimensionality of partisan and ideological affect: The influence of positivity. American Politics Quarterly, 12, 305-334.

Knoke, D. (1979). Stratification and the dimensions of American political orientations. American Journal of Political Science, 23, 772-791.

Koch, J. W. (1999). Candidate gender and assessments of Senate candidates. Social Science Quarterly, 80, 84-96.

Kosicki, G. M., & McLeod, J. M. (1990). Learning from political news: Effects of media images and information-processing strategies. In S. Kraus (Ed.), Mass Communication and political information processing, (pp. 69-83), Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Kraus, S. (Ed.) (1990). Mass Communication and political information processing. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Kraus, S., Perloff, R. M. (Eds.) (1985). Mass media and political thought: Information processing approach. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Krosnick, J. A. (1988). The role of attitude importance in social evaluation: A study of policy preferences, presidential candidate evaluations, and voting behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 196-210.

Krosnick, J. A. (1988). Attitude importance and attitude change. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 24, 240-255.

Krosnick, J. A., & Berent, M. K., & Boninger, D. S. (1994). Pockets of responsibility in the American electorate: Findings of a research program on attitude importance. Political Communication, 11,391-411.

Krosnick, J. A., & Kinder, D. R. (1990). Altering the foundations of support for the president through priming. American Political Science Review, 84, 497-512.

Kruse, D., & Kendall, K. E. (1995). A Rashomonian approach to the study of image construction. In K. L. Hacker (Ed.) Candidate images in presidential elections (pp. 145-152), Westport, CT: Praeger.

Kuklinski, J. H., & Hurley, N. L. (1994). On hearing and interpreting political messages: A cautionary tale of citizen cue-taking. Journal of Politics, 56, 729-751.

Kuklinski, J. H., Luskin, R. C., & Bolland, J. (1991). Where is the schema? Going beyond the 'S' work in political psychology. American Political Science Review, 85, 1341-1356.

Kuklinski, J. H,, Ottati, E., Ottati, V, Schwarz, N., & Wyer, R. S. (1991). The cognitive and affective bases of political tolerance judgments. American Journal of Political Science, 35, 1-27.

Kuklinski, J. H., & Sigelman, L. (1992). When objectivity is not objective: Network television news coverage of U. S. senators and the "paradox of objectivity", Journal of Politics, 54, 810-833.

Lanzetta, J. T., Sullivan, D. G., Masters, R. D., & McHugo, G. J. (1985). Viewers' emotional and cognitive responses to televised images of political leaders. In S. Kraus & R. M. Perloff (Eds.), Mass media and political thought: An information processing approach. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Lau, R. R. (1995). Information search during an election campaign: Introducing a processing-tracing methodology for political scientists. In M. Lodge and K. M. McGraw (Eds.), Political Judgment: Structure and Processes (pp. 179-205). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Lau, R. R. (1989). Construct accessibility and electoral choice. Political Behavior, 11, 5-32.

Lau, R. R. (1986). Political schemata: candidate evaluations and voting behavior. In R. R. Lau & D. O. Sears (Eds.), Political Cognition: The 19th annual Carnegie Symposium on cognition. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Lau, R. R. (1982). Negativity in political perception. Political Behavior, 4, 353-377.

Lau, R. R., & Erber, R. (1985). Political sophistication: An information-processing perspective. In S. Kraus & R. M. Perloff (Eds.), Mass media and political thought (pp. 37-64). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Lau, R. R., & Redlawsk, D. P. (2007). How Voters Decide: Information Processing during Election Campaigns. Political Psychology, 28, 641–644.

Lau, R. R., & Redlawsk (2006).How voters decie: Information processing during election campaigns. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Lau, R. R., & Redlawsk, D. P. (2001). Advantages and disadvantages of cognitive heuristics in political decision making. American Journal of Political Science, 45, 951-971.

Lau, R. R., & Sears, D. O. (1986). Political cognition: The 19th Annual Carnegie Symposium on Cognition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

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