GENERAL REFERENCES
Allan Louden, Wake Forest University (louden@wfu.edu)
Last Updated: Monday, 06-Sep-2010 12:57:40 EDT

Abramson, P. R. , Aldrich, J. H., Rohde, D. W., (1999). Change and continuity in the 1996 and 1998 elections. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Books.

Abramson, P. R., Aldrich, J. H., Rohde, D. W.(1998). Change and continuity in the 1996 elections. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Books.

Adams, W. C. (Ed.) (1983). Television coverage of the 1980 presidential campaign. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Alger, D. E. (1989). The Media and politics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Ansolabehere, S., Behr, R., & Iyengar, S. (1993). The media game: American politics in the television age. New York: Macmillan.

Ansolabehere, S., Iyengar, S., & Simon, A. (?). Shifting perspectives on the effects of campaign communication. Research in Political Sociology, 7, 13-31.

Arterton, F. C. (1984). Media Politics. Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath.

Atkin, C. K. (1981). Political campaigns: Mass communication and persuasion. In M. E. Roloff & G. R. Miller (Eds.), Persuasion: New directions in theory and research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Bailey, M, Faucheux, R. A., Herrnson, P. S., & Wilcox, C. (1999). Campaigns and Elections: Contemporary case studies. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press.

Barrus, R. M., & Eastby, J. (1994). American through the looking glass: Conservative constitutionalist critique of the 1992 election. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Beaudry, A., & Schaeffer, B. (1986). Winning local and state elections: The guide to organizing your campaign. New York: Free Press.

Benoit, W. L. (2007). Communication in political campaigns. New York: Peter Lang.

Benoit, W. L., McHale, J. P., Hansen, G. J., Pier, P. M., & McGuire, J. P. (2003). Campaign 2000: A functional analysis of presidential campaign discourse. New York: Rowman & Littlefield.

Benoit, W. L., Blaney, J. R., Pier, P. M. (1998). Campaign '96: A functional analysis of acclaiming, attacking, and defending. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Binning, W. C., Esterly, L. E., & Sracic, P. A. (1999). Encyclopedia of American parties, campaigns, and elections. Westport, CT: Greenwood

Bisnow, M. (1983). Diary of a dark horse: The 1980 Anderson presidential campaign. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.

Blumenthal, S. (1990). Pledging Allegiance: The last campaign of the cold war. New York: HarperCollins Publishers.

Blumenthal, S. (1982). The permanent campaign. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Blumler, J. G. (1997). Origins of the crisis of communication for citizenship. Political Communication, 14, 395-404.

Brookhiser, R. (1986). The outside story: How Democrats and Republicans reelected Reagan. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.

Buchanan, B. (1996). Renewing presidential politics: Campaigns, media, and the public interest. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Buchanan, B. (1991). Electing a president: The Markle Commission research on campaign '88. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

Buell E. H., Jr., & Sigelman, L. (2008). Attack politics: Negativity in presidential campaigns since 1960. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.

Campbell, J. E. (2000). The American campaign: U.S. Presidential campaigns and the national vote. Texas A&M University Press.

Ceaser, J. W., & Busch, A. E. (2001). The perfect tie: The true story of the 2000 presidential election. Landham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Ceaser, J., & Busch, A. (1997). Losing to win: The 1996 elections and American politics. Landham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Ceaser, J., & Busch, A. (1993). Upside down and inside out: The 1992 elections and American politics. Lanham, MD: Univ. Press of America.

Chagall, D. (1981). The new kingmakers. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich.

Combs, J. E., & Nimmo, D. (1996). The comedy of democracy. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Cook, R. (2000). U.S. presidential primary elections 1968-1996. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press.

Cook, R. & McGillivray, A. V. (1999). U.S. primary elections 1997-1998. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press.

Cook. R., McGillivray, A. V., & Scammon, R. M. (1998). America at the polls 1960-1996. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press.

Cook, R., McGillivray, A. V., & Scammon, R. M. (1994). America at the polls 1920-1956. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press.

Cramer, R. B. (1992).What it takes: The way to the White House. New York: Random House.

Crotty (Ed.) (2002). America's choice 2000. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Cunningham, L. (1995). Talking politics: Choosing the president in the television age. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Davis, R. (1996). The press and American politics: The new mediator, 2nd ed. Prentice Hall.

Davis, R., & Owen, D. (1997). The media in American politics. Boulder, CO: Westwood.

Denton, R. E. (2005). The 2004 presidential campaign: A communication perspective. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishing.

Denton, R. E. (2002). The 2000 presidential campaign: A communication perspective. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Denton, R. E. (1998). Communication variables and dynamics in the 1996 presidential campaign. In R. E. Denton (Ed.) The 1996 presidential campaign: A communication perspective (pp. 1-50). Westport, CT: Praeger.

Denton, R. E. (Ed.) (1998). The 1996 presidential campaign: A communication perspective. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Denton, R. E. (Ed.) (1994). The 1992 presidential campaign: A communication perspective. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Denton, R. E. (1988). A communication model of presidential power. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 18, 523-539.

Denton, R. E., Jr., & Kuypers, J. A. (2008). Politics and communication in America: Campaigns, media, and governing in the 21st century. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.

Denton, R. E., & Woodward, G. C. (1999). Political communication in America (3rd Edition.) New York: Praeger.

Devlin, L. P. (Ed.) (1987). Political persuasion in presidential campaigns. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.

Dover, E. D. (1994). Presidential elections in the television age: 1960-1962. Westport, CT: Greenwood.

Esser, F., & Pfetsch, B. (Eds) (2004). Comparing political communication: Theories, cases, and challenges. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press (International).

Fenno, R. F., Jr. (1996). Senators on the campaign trial: The politics of representation. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.

Flanigan, W. H., & Zingale, N. H. (1998). Political behavior of the American electorate (9th Ed.). Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Books.

Germond, J. W., & Witcover (1989). Whose broad stripes and bright stars?: The trivial pursuit of the presidency 1988. New York: Warner.

Germond, J. W., & Witcover (1985). Wake us when it's over: Presidential politics of 1984. New York: Macmillan

Graber, D. A., & Smith, J. M. (2005). Political communication faces the 21st century. Journal of Communication, 55, 479-507.

Graber, D. A. (2004). Methodological developments in political communication research. In L. L. Kaid (Ed.), Handbook of political communication research (pp. 45-67). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publisher.

Graber, D. A. (Ed.) (1984). Media power in politics. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly.

Graber, D. A. (Ed.) (1996). Mass media and American politics, 5th Ed. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly.

Goldman, P., & Fuller, T. (1985). The quest for the presidency - 1984. New York: Bantam.

Gurevitch, M. (1995). Political communication. Westport, CT: Greenwood.

Hahn, D. F. (1998). Political communication: Rhetoric, government, and citizens. State College, PA: Strata Publishing.

Hamm, I., & Mann, T. E. (1998). Political communication in the information society: The findings of a German-American workshop. Brookings.

Hart, R. P. (1982). A commentary on popular assumptions about political communication. Human Communication Research, 8, 366-389.

Hart, R. P., Shaw, D. R. (2001). Communication in U.S. Elections: New Agendas. Blue Ridge Sumt, PA: Rowman & Littlefield.

Hart, R. P., & Sparrow, B. (Eds.) (2001). Politics, discourse, and American society. Blue Ridge Sumt, PA: Rowman & Littlefield.

Haynes, K. J. M. (2004). Design and creation of a controlled vocabulary for political communication. In L. L. Kaid (Ed.), Handbook of political communication research (pp. 109-132). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publisher.

Herrnson, P. S. (1997). Congressional elections: Campaigning at home and in Washington (2nd Ed.). Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Books.

Hershey, M. R. (1984). Running for office: The political education of campaigners. Chatham, NJ: Chatham House.

Hess, S. (1998). The little book of campaign etiquette: for everyone with a stake in politicians and journalists. Washington, DC: Brookings.

Hohenberg, J. (1997). Reelecting Bill Clinton: Why America chose a "New" democrat. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.

Holbrook, T. M. (1996). Do campaigns matter? Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Hollihan, T. (2001). Uncivil wars: Political campaigns in a media age. St. Martin's Press.

Iyengar, S. (2001). The method is the message: The current state of political communication. http://pcl.stanford.edu/common/docs/research/iyengar/2001/method.pdf

Iyengar, S., & McGrady, J. A. (2007). Media politics: A citzens guide. New York: W. W. Norton

Jackson, J. S., & Crotty, W. (1996). The politics of presidential selection. New York: HarperCollins.

Jacobson, G. C. (2001). The 2000 elections and beyond. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press.

Jamieson, K. H. (1992). Dirty politics: Deception, distraction and democracy. New York: Oxford.

Jamieson, K. H. (1996). Packaging the presidency: A history and criticism of presidential advertising. New York: Oxford (3rd Ed.).

Jamieson, K. H., & Campbell, K. K. (1983). The interplay of influence: Mass media and their publics in news, advertising and politics. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Johnson, R., Hagen, M. G., & Jamieson, K. H. (2004). The 2000 presidential election and the foundations of party politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Johnson, T., J., Hayes, C. E. & Hayes, S. P. (?) (Eds.), Engaging the public: How government and the media can reinvigorate American democracy. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Johnson-Cartee, K. S., & Copeland, G. A. (1997). Inside political campaigns: Theory and practice. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Joslyn, R. (1984). Mass media and elections. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Kahn, K. F., & Kenney, P. J. (1999). The spectacle of U.S. Senate campaigns. Princeton University Press.

Kaid, L. L. (Ed.), Handbook of political communication research. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publisher.

Kaid, L. L., McKinney, M. S., & Tedesco, J. C. (2000). Civic dialogue in the 1996 presidential campaign: Candidate, media, and public voices. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

Kaid, L. L., Tedesco, J. C., Bystrom, D. G., & McKinney, J. C. (2003). The millennium election: Communication in the 2000 campaign. New York: Rowman & Littlefield.

Kaid, L. L., & Bystrom, D. (1998). The electronic election: Perspectives on the 1996 campaign communication. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Kamber, V. (1997). Poison politics: Are negative campaigns destroying democracy? New York: Insight Books.

Keane, J. (1991). The media and democracy. Oxford: Polity.

Kendall, K. E. (Ed.) (1995). Presidential campaign discourse: Strategic communication problems. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Kepplinger, H. M. (1996). Political communication research. New York: Ablex.

Klinkner, P. A. (Ed.) (1996). Midterm: The elections of 1994 in context. Boulder, CO: Westview.

Kraus, S., & Perloff, R. M. (Eds.) (1985). Mass media and political thought: Information processing approach. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Lawler, P.A., & Schaefer, R. M. (2005). American political rhetoric: A reader (5th Ed). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishing.

Levine, M. A. (1995). Presidential campaigns and elections: Issues and images in the media age. Itasca, IL: Peacock Publishers.

Lewis, M. (1997). Trail fever: Spin doctors, rented strangers, thumb wrestlers, toe suckers, grizzly bears, and other creatures on the road to the White House. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Lin, Y. (2004). Fragmentation of the structure of political communication research: Diversification or isolation? In L. L. Kaid (Ed.), Handbook of political communication research (pp. 69-107). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publisher.

Linsky, M. (Ed.) (1983). Television and the presidential elections. New York: Lexington Books.

Lipset, S. M. (1986). Beyond 1984: The anomalies of American politics. PS, 9, 222-236.

Loevy, R. D. (1995). The flawed path to the presidency 1992: Unfairness and inequality in the presidential selection process. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Luntz, F. I. (1988). Candidates, consultants & campaigns. New York: Basil Blackwell.

McLeod, J. M., Kosicki, G. M., & McLeod, D. M. (1994). The expanding boundaries of political communication effects. In J. Bryant & D. Zillmann (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (pp. 123-162). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Mayer, W. G. (Ed.) (1996). In pursuit of the White House: How we choose our presidential nominees. Chatham, NJ: Chatham House Publishers. [collected essay on the primary/winnowing process].

Meadow, R. G. (1980). Politics as communication. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Meadow, R. G. (1985). Political communication research in the 1980's. Journal of Communications, 35, 157-173.

Meadow, R. G., (1989). Political campaigns. In R. E. Rice & C. K. Atkin (Eds). Public communication campaigns, (2Nd Edition) (pp. 253-272). Newbury Park: Sage.

Melder, K. (1992). Hail to the candidate: Presidential campaigns from banner to broadcasts. Washington, D. C., Smithsonian Institution Press.

McKinney, M. S., Kaid, L. L., Bystrom, D. G., & Carlin, D. B. (Eds.) (2005). Communicating politics: Engaging the public in democratic life. New York: Peter Lang.

McNair, B. (1999). Introduction to political communication, 2nd Ed., New York, NY: Routledge.

Milbank, D. (2001). Smashmouth: Two years in the gutter with Al Gore and George W. Bush - Notes from the 2000 campaign trail. New York: Basic Books.

Miller, A. H., & Gronbeck, B. E. (1993). Presidential campaigning and American self image. Boulder, CO: Westview.

Moffitt, M. A. (1999). Campaign strategies and message design: A practitioner's guide form start to finish. Praeger.

Moore, J. (Ed.) (1986). Campaign for president: The managers look at '84. Dover, MA: Auburn House.

Moore, J. L. (1999). Elections A to Z. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press.

Moreland, L. W., & Steed, R. P. (Eds.) (1997). The 1996 presidential election in the South: Southern Party Systems in the 1990's. Praeger.

Negrine, R., & Stanyer, J. (2007). The political communication reader. New York, NY: Routledge.

Nelson, M. (Ed.) (2001). The elections of 2000. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press

Nelson, M. (1997). The elections of 1996. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press.

Nelson, M. (1985). The elections of 1984. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press.

Newman, B. I. (1999). Handbook of political marketing. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Newman, B. I. (1999). The mass marketing of politics: Democracy in the an age of manufactured images. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Newman, B. I. (2004). Political marketing: Theory, research, and applications. In L. L. Kaid (Ed.), Handbook of political communication research (pp. 17-43). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publisher.

Nimmo, D. D., & Sanders, K. R. (Eds.) (1981). Handbook of political communication. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Nimmo, D. D., & Combs, J. E. (1980). Subliminal Politics: Myths and mythmakers in America. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Nimmo, D. D., & Combs, J. E. (1983). Mediated political realities. New York: Longman.

Norrander, B. (1986). Selective participation: Presidential primary voters as a subset of general election voters. American politics Quarterly, 14, 35-53.

Norrander, B., & Smith, G. W. (1985). Type of contest, candidate strategy, and turnout in presidential primaries. American Politics Quarterly, 13, 28-50.

Norris, P, Curtice, J, Sanders, D., Scammell, M., & Semetko, H. A. (1999). On message: Communicating the campaign. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

O'Keefe, G. J. (1975). Political campaigns and mass communication research. In S. S. Chaffee (Ed.), Political communication: Issues and strategies for research (pp. 129-164). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

O’Rourke, W. (1997). Campaign America ’96: The view from the couch. New York: Marlowe & Co.

O'Shaughnessy, N. (1990). The phenomenon of political marketing. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Paletz, D. L. (1999). The media in American politics: Contents and consequences. New York: Longman.

Paletz, D. (Ed.) (1987). Political communication research: Approaches, studies, assessments. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Paletz, D., & Entman, R. (1981). Media power politics. New York: Free Press.

Patterson, K. D., Bice, A. A., & Pipkin, E. (1999). Political parties, candidates, and presidential campaigns: 1952-1996. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 29, 26-39.

Patterson, T. E. (1980). The mass media election: How Americans choose their president. New York: Praeger.

Payne, J. G. (Ed) (1997). Campaign ’96: Messages for the new Millennium. American Behavioral Scientist, 40. (Special Issue)

Perloff, R. M. (1997). Political communication: Politics, press, and public in America. Mahwah, NJ: Earlbaum.

Perry-Giles, T., & Parry-Giles, S. J. (2001). Reassessing the state of political communication in the United States. Argumentation and Advocacy, 37, 158-170.

Pious, R. M. (Ed) (1992). Presidents, elections & democracy. New York: Academy of Political Science.

Pomper, G. M. (Ed.) (2001). The election of 2000. New York: Seven Bridges Press.

Pomper, G. M. (Ed.) (1997). The election of 1996. Chatham, NJ: Chatham House Publishers.

Pomper, G M. (Ed.), The elections of 1988: Reports and interpretations. New Jersey: Chatham.

Pomper, G. M. (Ed.) (1985). The election of 1984: Reports and interpretation. Chatham, NJ: Chatham House.

Popkin, S. L. (1991), The reasoning voter: Communication and persuasion in presidential campaigns. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Powell, L., & Cowart, J. (2003). Political campaign communication: Inside and out. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

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Rogers, E. M. (2004). Theoretical diversity in political communication. In L. L. Kaid (Ed.), Handbook of political communication research (pp. 3-16). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publisher.

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Rozell, M. J., & Wilcox, C. (1998). Interest groups in American campaigns: The new face of electioneering. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press.

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Sabato, L. J. (1984). PAC power: Inside the world of political action. New York: W. W. Norton.

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Sanders, K. R., Kaid, L. L., & Nimmo, D. (Eds.) (1985). Political communication yearbook, 1984. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.

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Schantz, H. L. (Ed.) (1996). American presidential elections: Process, policy, and political change. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Scheele, P. E. (1999). "WE Get What We Vote For. . . Or Do We?" The impact of elections on governing. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.

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Scheufele, D. A. (1999). Framing as a theory of media effects. Journal of Communication, 49, 103-119.

Shaprio, R. Y. (Ed) (1996). Understanding presidential elections: Trends and new developments. New York: Academy of Political Science.

Shaw, D. R. (2001). Communicating and electing. In Communication in U. S. Elections: New Agendas (pp. 1-17). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Pub.

Shea, D. M., & Burton, M. J. (2001). Campaign craft: The strategies, tactics, and art of political campaign management. Westport, CT: Praeger.

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Smith, C. A. (2010). Presidential campaign communication: The quest for the White House. Malden, MA: Polity Books.

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Stuckey, M. E. (1996). The theory and practice of political communication research. Albany: State University of New York Press.

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