Polling and Public Opinion

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY
Allan Louden, Wake Forest University (louden@wfu.edu)
Last Updated: Sunday, 25-Nov-2012 13:21:06 EST

Abrajano, M., & Burnett, C. M. (2012). Polls and elections: Do blacks and whites See Obama through race-tinted glasses? A comparison of Obama's and Clinton's approval ratings. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 42, 363–375.

Abramson, P. R., & Ostrom, C. W. (1994). Question wording and partisanship: Changes and continuity in party loyalties during the 1992 election campaign. Public Opinion Quarterly, 58, 21-48.

Aczel, A. D., Haughton, D. M. A., & Josephy, N. H. (1994). Ross Perot and the multinomial distribution. Communication Research, 21, 408-418.

Alsina, C., Davies, P. J., & Gronbeck, B. (2001). Preference poll stories in the last 2 weeks of campaign 2000. American Behavioral Scientist, 44, 2288-2305.

Althaus, S. (1996). Opinion polls, information effects, and political equality: Exploring ideological biases in collective opinion. Political Communication, 13, 3-21.

Altshuler, B. E. (1986). Johnson and the public opinion polls. Public Opinion Quarterly, 50, 285-299.

Ansolabehere, S., & Iyengar, S. (1994).Of horseshoes and horse races: Experimental studies of the impact of poll results on electoral behavior. Political Communication, 11, 413-430.

Asher, H. (1998). Polling and the public: What every citizen should know. Washington, D. C.: Congressional Quarterly Press. (4th Ed.)

Atkin, C. K., & Gaudino, J. (1984). The impact of polling in the mass media. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 472, 119-128.

Barker, D., & Knight, K. (2000). Political talk radio and public opinion. Public Opinion Quarterly, 64, 149-170.

Barone, M. (1988). The power of the presidents' pollsters. Public Opinion, 11, 2-4.

Bartels, L. M., & Broh, C. A. (1989). The polls-a review: The 1988 presidential primaries. Public Opinion Quarterly, 53, 563-589.

Bauman, S., & Herbst, S. (1994). Managing perceptions of public opinion: Candidates’ and journalists’ reactions to the 1992 polls. Political Communication, 11, 133-144.

Beck, P. A. (1991). Voters' intermediation environments in the 1988 presidential contest. Public Opinion Quarterly, 55, 371-394.

Behr, R. L., & Iyengar, S. (1985). Television news, real world cues, and changes in the public agenda. Public Opinion Quarterly, 49, 38-57.

Bennett (1993). Constructing publics and their opinions. Political Communication, 10, 101-120.

Bennett, W. L. (1989). Marginalizing the majority: Conditioning public opinion to accept managerial democracy. In M. Margolis & G. A. Mauser (Eds), Manipulating public opinion: Essays on public opinion as a dependent variable (pp. 321-361). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Bennett, W. L., & Klockner, J. D. (1996). The psychology of mass-mediated publics. In A. N. Crigler (Ed.), The psychology of political communication (pp. 89-109). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Bishop, G. F., & Fisher, B. S. (1995). "Secret ballots" and self-reports in an exit-poll experiment. Public Opinion Quarterly, 59, 568-588.

Blakeman, B. W. (1995, August). Tracking polls: How to do them. . Campaigns & Elections, 16, 24-25.

Bogart, L. (1985). Polls and public opinion. Society, 23, 16-25.

Bowman, K. (2001). Knowing the public mind. Wilson Quarterly, 25, 90-106.

Brace, P., & Hinckley, B. (1992). Follow the leader: Opinion polls and the modern presidents. New York: Basic Books.

Brady, H. E., & Orren, G. R. (1992). Polling pitfalls: Sources of error in public opinion surveys. In T. E. Mann & G. R. Orren (Eds.), Media polls in American politics (pp. 55-94). Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

Breglio, V. (1987). Polling in campaigns. In L. P. Devlin (Ed.), Political persuasion in presidential campaigns (pp. 29-39). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.

Brewer, P. R. (2008). Public opinion and the politics of gay rights. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Brower, B. (1988). The pernicious power of the polls. Money (March), 144-158.

Broh, C. A. (1983). Presidential preference polls and network news. In W. C. Adams (Ed.), Television coverage of the 1980 presidential campaign (pp. 29-48). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Buchanan, W. (1986). Election predictions: An empirical assessment. Public Opinion Quarterly, 50, 222-227.

Burden, B. C., & Hillygus, D. S. (2009). Opinion formation, polarization, and presidential reelection, Presidential Studies Quarterly, 39, 619-635. 

Burrell, B., Elder, L., & Frederick, B. (2011). Polls and Elections: From Hillary to Michelle: Public Opinion and the Spouses of presidential candidates. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 41, 156-176.

Busch. R. J., & Lieske, J. A. (1985). Does time of voting affect exit poll results? Public Opinion Quarterly, 49, 94-104.

Campbell, J. E., & Garand, J. C. (1999). Before the vote: Forecasting American national elections. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Cantril, A. (199?). The opinion connection: Polling, politics, and the press. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly.

Cappella, J. N., Price, V., & Nir, L. (2002). Argument repertoire as a reliable and valid measure of opinion quality: Electronic dialogue during campaign 2000. Political Communication, 19, 73-93.

Carey, J. (1995). The press, public opinion and public discourse. In T. L. Glasser, C. T. Salmon (Eds.), Public opinion and the communication of consent. (pp. 337-402). New York: Guilford Press.

Crespi, I. (1997). The Public opinion process: How the people speak. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Carpini, M. X. D. (1996). Constructing public opinion: The uses of fictional and nonfictional television in conversations about the environment. In A. N. Crigler (Ed.), The psychology of political communication (pp. 149-175). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Carpini, M. X. D. (1984). Scooping the voters? The consequences of the networks' early call of the 1980 presidential race. Journal of Politics, 46, 866-885.

Carroll, J. G., Herbst, S., O'Keefe, G. J., & Shaprio, R. Y. (1999). Public opinion. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Ceci, S. J., & Kain, E. L. (1982). Jumping on the bandwagon with the under-dog: The impact of attitude polls on polling behavior. Public Opinion Quarterly, 46, 228-242.

Choi, Y. J., Cheolhan, L., & Lee, J. H.(2004). Influence of poll results on the advocates' political discourse: An application of the functional analysis debates on Online messages in the 2002 Korean presidential election, Asian Journal of Communication, 14, 95-110.

Cohen, J. E. (2004). If the news is so bad, why are presidential polls so high? Presidents, the news media, and the mass public in the era of the new media. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 34, 493-515.

Cohen, J. E., & Hamman, J. A. (2005). Presidential ideology and the public mood: 1956-1994. In L. C. Han and D. J. Heith (Eds.) In the public domain: Presidents and the challenges of public leadership (pp. 141-162). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Cohen, J. E., & Hamman, J. A. (2003). The polls: Can presidential rhetoric affect the public's economic perceptions? Presidential Studies Quarterly, 33, 408-423.

Collet, C. (1996). Third parties and the two-party system. Public Opinion Quarterly, 60, 431-449.

Conway, M. (1984). The use of polls in congressional state, and local elections. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 472, 97-105.

Craig, R. (2000). Expectations and elections: How television defines campaign news. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 17, 28-44.

Crespi, I. (1997). The pubic opinion process: How the people speak. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Crespi, I. (1989). Public opinion, polls, and Democracy. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Crespi, I., & Morris, D. (1984). Question order effect and the measurement of preference in the 1982 Connecticut elections. Public Opinion Quarterly, 48, 578-591.

Daves, R. P., & Newport, F. (2005). Pollsters under attack"2004 election incivility and its consquences. Public Opinion Quarterly, 69, 670-681.

Day, R., & Becker, K. (1984). Pre-election polling in the 1982 Illinois gubernatorial contest. Public Opinion Quarterly, 48, 606-614.

DeClercq, E. (1978). The use of polling in congressional campaigns. Public Opinion Quarterly, 42, 427-258.

Demer, D. P. (1987). Use of polls in reporting changes slightly since 1978. Journalism Quarterly, 839-842.

Denver, D., Hands, G., & Jones, B. (1995). Fishkin and the deliberative opinion poll: Lessons from a study of the Granada 500 television program. Political Communication, 12, 147-156.

DeRosa, K. L., & Tedesco, J. C. (1999). Surveying the spin: Interpretation of the 1996 presidential polls. In L. L. Kaid and Bystrom, D. G. (Eds.), The electronic election: Perspectives on the 1996 campaign communication (pp. 65-79). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Domke, D., Fan, D. P., Fibison, M., Shah, D., Smith, S. S., & Watts, M. D. (1997). News media, candidates and issues, and public opinion in the 1996 presidential campaign. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 74, 718-737.

Edelman, M. (1993). Contestable categories and public opinion. Political Communication, 10, 231-242.

Edwards, J. L. (1998). The very model of a modern major (media) candidate: Colon Powell and the rhetoric of public opinion. Communication Quarterly, 46, 163-176.

Eisinger, R. M. (2003). The evolution of presidential polling. Cambridge University Press.

Entman, R. M., & Herbst, S. (2001). Reframing public opinion as we have known it. In W. L. Bennett & R. M. Entman (Eds.), Mediated politics: Communication in the future of democracy (pp. 203-225). New York: NY: Cambridge University Press

Epstein, L, & Strom, G. (1984). Survey research and election night projections. Public Opinion, 7(1), 48-50.

Erickson, R. S., & Sigelman, L. (1995). Poll-based forecasts of midterm congressional election outcomes: Do the pollsters get it right? Public Opinion Quarterly, 59, 589-605.

Erickson, R. W., & Wlezien, C. (1999). Presidential polls as a time series: A case of 1996. Public Opinion Quarterly, 63, 163-177.

Eisinger, R. M. (2000). Gauging public opinion in the Hoover White House: Understanding the roots of presidential polling. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 30, 643-661.

Fairlie, H. (1988). Brief whining moments: The collapse of oratory. New Republic, 100, 10-.

Fan, D. P. (1988). Predictions of public opinion from the mass media. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Fan, D. P. (1996). Predictions of the Bush-Clinton-Perot presidential race from the press. Political Analysis, 6, 67-105.

Fan, D. P., & Tims, A. R. (1989). The impact of the news media on public opinion: American presidential elections 1987-1988. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 1, 151-163.

Farnsworth, S. J., & Lichter, S. R. (1999). No small-town poll: Public attention to network coverage of the 1992 New Hampshire primary. The Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 3, 51-61.

Feld, K. G. (2001, October). Online polling and survey research. Campaigns & Elections, 22, 41-43.

Feld, K. G. (2000, May). What are push polls, anyway. Campaigns & Elections, 21, 62-63, 70.

Feldman, S. (1995). Answering survey questions: The measurement and meaning of public opinion. In M. Lodge and K. M. McGraw (Eds.), Political Judgment: Structure and Processes (pp. 249-270). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Fishkin, J. S. (1996). The televised deliberative poll: An experiment in democracy. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 456, 132-140.

Frankovic, K. A. (2005). Reporting "the polls" in 2004. Public Opinion Quarterly, 69, 682-697.

Frankovic, K. A. (1998). Public opinion and polling. In D. Graber, D. McQuail, P. Norris (Eds.), The politics of news: The news of politics (pp. 150-170). Washington, D. C.: Congressional Quarterly Press.

Freedman, P., & Goldstein, K. (1996). Building a probable electorate from preelection polls: A two stage approach. Public Opinion Quarterly, 60. 574-587.

Geldman, A., & King, G. (1993). Why are American presidential elections polls so variable when votes are so predictable? British Journal of Political Science, 23, 409-451.

Ginsberg, B. (1986). Polling and the transformation of public opinion. In B. Ginsberg, The captive public (pp. 59-85). New York: Basic Books.

Ginsberg, B. (1989). How polling transforms public opinion. In M. Margolis & G. A. Mauser (Eds.), Manipulating public opinion: Essays on public opinion as a dependent variable (pp. 271-293). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Glasser, C. T. (Ed.) (1995). Public opinion and the communication of consent. New York, NY: Guilford Publications

Glynn, C. J., Herbst, S., Garrett, J., O'Keefe, G., & Shapiro, R. Y. (1999). Public opinion. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Glynn, C. J., Herbst, S., O’Keefe, G., Shapiro, R., & Williams, B. A. (1997). Public Opinion: Politics, communication, and process. Boulder, CO: Westview.

Gollin, A. E. (1987). Polling and the news media. Public Opinion Quarterly, 51, 586-594.

Graber, D. A. (1982). The impact of media research on public opinion studies. In D. C. Whitney & E Wartella (Eds.), Mass communication review yearbook (Vol. 3, pp. 555-564). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Green, D. P., & Gerber, A. S. (2003). Enough already with random digit dialing: Can registration-based sampling improve the accuracy of election forecasts? Institute for Social and Policy Studies, Yale. http://www.yale.edu/isps/publications/voter.html

Green, D. P., & Gerber, A. (1998, August). How to interpret tracking polls. Campaigns & Elections, 19, 23-25, 60.

Gunther, A. C. (1992). Biased press or biased public?: Attitudes towards media coverage of social groups. Public Opinion Quarterly, 56, 147-167.

Habela, P. D. (2012). Following the opinion leaders? The dynamics of influence Aaong media opinion, the public, and politicians. Political Communication, 29, 257–277.

Hall, W. C. (2002). "Reflections of yesterday": George H. W. Bush's instrumental use of public opinion in presidential discourse. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 32, 531-558.

Hall, W. C. (2002). The invention of 'Quantifiably safe rhetoric': Richard Wirthlin and Ronald Reagan's instrumental use of public opinion research in Presidential discourse. Western Journal of Communication, 66, 319-346.

Hamilton, B., & Beattie, D. (1999). Modern campaign polling. In D. D. Perlmutter (Ed.), The Manship School guide to political communication (pp. 95-106). Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press.

Han, L. C. (2005). The Rose Garden stategy revisited: How presidents use public activities. In L. C. Han and D. J. Heith (Eds.) In the public domain: Presidents and the challenges of public leadership (pp. 163-). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Harrison, T. (1995). Are public opinions used illegitimately? 47% say yes. In S. Jackson (Ed.), Argumentation and values. Proceeding of the 9th SCA/AFA Conference on Argumentation (pp. 383-388). Annandale, VA: Speech Communication Association.

Hauser, G. A. (1998). Vernacular dialogue and the rhetoricality of public opinion. Communication Monographs, 65, 83-107.

Heith, D. J. (2005). The White House public opinion apparatus meets the anti-polling president. In L. C. Han and D. J. Heith (Eds.) In the public domain: Presidents and the challenges of public leadership (pp. 75-87). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Herbst, S. (2001). Public opinion infrastructures: Meanings, measures, media. Political Communication, 18, 451-464.

Herbst, S. (1998). Reading public opinion: How political actors view the democratic process. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Herbst, S. (1996). Public express outside the mainstream. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 546, 120-131.

Herbst, S. (1993). The meaning of public opinion: Citizens' constructions of political reality. Media, Culture and Society, 15, 437-454.

Herbst, S. (1993). Numbered voices: How opinion polling has shaped American politics. Chicago,: University of Chicago Press.

Herbst, S. (1991). Classical democracy, polls, and public opinion: Theoretical frameworks for studying the development of public sentiment. Communication Theory, 1, 225-238.

Hickman, H. (1991). Public polls and election participation. In P. J. Lavrakas and J. K. Holley (Eds), Polling and presidential election coverage (p. 100-133). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Hill, D. (1995, August). Wording ballot issues. . Campaigns & Elections, 16, 28-29.

Hill, D. (1991). Strategic polling: The fine art of honing in on voter preferences. Campaigns & Elections, 12, 26-34.

Hitchens, C. (1992). Voting in the passive voice: What polling has done to American democracy. Harper's, , 45-53.

Hogan, J. M. (1997). George Gallup and the rhetoric of scientific democracy. Communication Monographs, 64, 161-179.

Holley, J. K. (1991). The press and political polling. In P. J. Lavrakas and J. K. Holley (Eds), Polling and presidential election coverage (p. 215-237). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Hsuan-Yi, C. H-Y., & Lien, N-H. (2012). How do candidate poll ranking and election status affect the effects of negative political advertising? International Journal of Advertising,  29, 815-834.

Iyengar, Shanto and Donald R. Kinder (1987). News That Matters: Television and American Opinion. University of Chicago Press.

Ismach, A. H. (1984). Polling as a news-gathering tool. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 472, 106-118.

Jackson, J. E. (1983). Election night reporting and voter turnout. American Journal of Political Science, 27, 615-635.

Jacobs, L. R., & Shapiro, R. Y. (2000). Politicians don't pander: Political manipulation and the loss of democratic responsiveness. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Jacobs, L. R., & Shapiro, R. Y. (1996). Toward the integrated study of political communication, public opinion, and the policy-making process. PS: Political Science & Politics, 29, 10-13.

Jacobs, L. R., & Shapiro, R. Y. (1995-6). Presidential manipulation of polls and public opinion: The Nixon administration and the pollsters. Political Science Quarterly, 110.

Jacobs, L. R., & Shapiro, R. Y. (1995). The rise of presidential polling: The Nixon White House in historical perspective. Public Opinion Quarterly, 59, 163-195.

Jacobs, L. R., Shapiro, R. Y. (1994). Issues, candidate image, and priming: The use of private polls in Kennedy's 1960 presidential campaign. American Political Science Review, 88, 527-540.

Jacoby, W. G. (2006) Value choices and American public opinion, American Journal of Political Science, 50, 706-723.

Jeffres, L. W., Neuendorf, K. A., & Atkin, D. (1999). Spirals of silence: Expressing opinions when the climate of opinion is unambiguous. Political Communication, 16, 115-131.

John, K. E. (1989). The polls-a report: 1980-1988 New Hampshire presidential polls. Public Opinion Quarterly, 53, 590-605.

Jones, T. (2007). .Politics, polling and persuading the people. St. Louis Journalism Review, 37, 16-32

Jowell, R., Hedges, B., Lynn, P., Farrant, G., & Heath, A. (1993). The 1992 British election: The failure of the polls. Public Opinion Quarterly, 57, 238-263.

Kagay, M. R. (1999). Public opinion and polling during presidential scandal an impeachment. Public Opinion Quarterly, 63, 449-463.

Kagay, M. R. (1991). The use of public opinion polls by The New York Times. In P. J. Lavrakas and J. K. Holley (Eds), Polling and presidential election coverage (p. 19-56). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Kaplan, N., Park, D. K., & Gelman, A. (2012) Polls and elections understanding persuasion and activation in presidential campaigns: The random walk and mean reversion models. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 42, 843-866.

Keeter, S. (1997).Public opinion and the election. In M. M./ Pomper (Ed.), The election of 1996 (pp. 107-133). Chatham, NJ: Chatham House Publishers.

Kohut, A. (1986). Rating the polls: The view of media elites and the general public. Public Opinion Quarterly, 50, 10-16.

Kramer, G. (1971). The effects of precinct-level canvassing on voter behavior. Public Opinion Quarterly, 34, 560-572.

Ladd, E. C., & Benson, J. (1992). The growth of news polls in American politics. In T. E. Mann & G. R. Orren (Eds.), Media polls in American politics (pp. 19-31). Washington, DC: Brookings.

Lang, G. E., & Lang, K. (1983). The battle for public opinion: The president, the press, and the polls during Watergate. New York: Columbia University Press.

Lang, K., & Lang, G. E. (1984). The impact of polls on public opinion. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 472, 129-142.

Larson, S. G. (2003). Misunderstanding margin of error: Network news coverage of polls during the 2000 general election. Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 8, 66-80.

Larson, S. G. (2003). Representations of the public and public opinion in national television election news. In L. L Kaid, J. C. Tedesco, D. G. Bystrom, & M. S. McKinney (Eds.) The millennium election: Communication in the 2000 campaign (pp. 105-116) . New York: Rowman & Littlefield.

Larson, S. G. (2000). Network differences in public opinion coverage during the 1996 presidential campaign. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 44, 16-26.

Larson, S. G. (1999). Public opinion in television election news: Beyond polls. Political Communication, 16, 133-145.

Lavrakas, P. J., & Holley, J. K. (Eds.) (1991). Polling and presidential election coverage. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Lavrakas, P. J., Holley, J. K., & Miller, P. V. (1991). Public reactions to polling news during the 1988 presidential election campaign. In P. J. Lavrakas and J. K. Holley (Eds.), Polling and presidential election coverage (p. 151-183). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Lavrakas, P. J., & Traugott, M. W. (Eds.) (2000). Election polls, the news media, and democracy. New York: Chatham House.

Lau, R. R., (1994). An analysis of the accuracy of "trail heat" polls during the 1992 presidential election. Public Opinion Quarterly, 58, 2-20.

Lewis, I. A. (1991). Media polls, the Los Angeles Times poll, and the 1988 presidential election. In P. J. Lavrakas and J. K. Holley (Eds.), Polling and presidential election coverage (p. 57-82). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Lewis, J. (2001). Constructing public opinions: How political elites do what they like and why we seem to o along with it. New York: Columbia University Press.

Lewis-Beck, M. S. (2001). Modelers v. pollsters: The election forecasts debate. Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 6, 10-14.

Lipari, L. (2001). Voice, polling, and the public sphere. In R. P, Hart and B. H. Sparrow (Eds.), Politics, discourse, and American society: New agendas (pp. 129-149), Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Pub., Inc.

Lipari, L. (1999). Polling as ritual. Journal of Communication, 49-102.

Making Mr. Right. . . President: An interview with Linda DiVall and Harrison Hickman (1987). Public Opinion, 10, 2-5, 52-53.

Maguire, M. P., & Ashford, B. (2000, May). New polling technology: Cutting-edge Internet surveys. Campaigns & Elections, 21, 68-69.

Mann, E. T., & Orren, G. R. (Eds.) (1992). Media polls in American politics. Washington, D. C.: Brookings.

Maullin, R., & Quirk, C. (1995, August). Audience response systems. . Campaigns & Elections, 16, 27, 56.

Mayer, R. K. (2001). What to expect from electoral expectations. Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 6, 71-89.

McBride, F. W. (1991). Media use of preelection polls. In P. J. Lavrakas, & J. K. Holley (Eds). Polling and presidential election coverage (pp. 184-199) Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

McCombs, M., & Reynolds, A. (1999). The poll with a human face: The national issue convention experiment in political communication. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum.

Mellman, M., Lazarus, E., Rivlin, A., & Grove, L. (1991, May). Benchmark basics and beyond. Campaigns and Elections, 22-32.

Merkle, D. M., & Miller, P. V. (1994). Campaign polls and America’s sense of democratic consensus. In A. H. Miller & B. E. Gronbeck (Eds.), Presidential campaigning and America's self images (pp. 159-175). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Meyer, P. (1989). Precision journalism and the 1988 U.S. elections. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 1, 195-205.

Michalos, A. C. (1991). Ethical considerations regarding pubic opinion polling during election campaigns. Journal of Business Ethics, 10, 403-422.

Milavsky, J. R., Swift, A. Roper, B. W., Salant, R., & Abrams, F. (1985). Early calls on election results and exit polls: Pros, cons, and constitutional considerations. Public Opinion Quarterly, 49, 1-18.

Miller, P. V., Merkle, D. M., & Wang, P. (1991). Journalism with footnotes: Reporting the "technical details" of polls. In P. J. Lavrakas and J. K. Holley (Eds), Polling and presidential election coverage (p. 200-214). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Mitofsky, W. J. (1998). The polls--review: Was 1996 a worse year for polls than 1948? Public Opinion Quarterly, 62, 230-249.

Mitofsky, W. J. (1991). A short history of exit polls. In P. J. Lavrakas and J. K. Holley (Eds), Polling and presidential election coverage (p. 83-99). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Moore, D. W. (1992). The super pollsters: How they measure and manipulate public opinion in America. New York: Four Walls Eight Windows.

Morwitz, V. G., & Pluzinski, C. (1996). Do polls reflect opinions or do opinions reflect polls? The impact of political polling on voter's expectations, preferences, and behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 23, 53-67.

Murray, S. K. (2006). Private polls and presidential policymaking. Public Opinion Quarterly, 70, 477-498.

Murray, S. K., & Howard, P. (2002). Variantion in White House polling operations. Public Opinion Quarterly, 66, 527-558.

Mutz, D. C. (1998). Impersonal influence: How perceptions of mass collectives affect political attitudes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Mutz, D. C. (1995). Media, momentum and money: Horse race spin in the 1988 Republican primaries. In P. J. Lavraka, M. W. Traugott, & P. V. Millers (Eds.), Presidential polls and news media. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Mutz, D. C. (1993). Polling Effects in Elections Campaigns.Political Communication, 10, 327-327.

Myers, P., & Potter, D. (1998). Preelection polls and issue knowledge in the 966 U. S. presidential election. The Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 3, 35-43.

Nacos, B. L., Shapiro, R. Y., & Isernia, P. (Eds.) (2000). Decision-Making in a glass house: Mass media, public opinion, and American and European foreign policy in the 21st century. Landham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Nelson, T. E. , Kinder, D. R. (1996). Issue framing and group-centrism in American public opinion. Journal of Politics, 58, 1055-1078.

Neuman, W. R. (1986). The paradox of mass politics: Knowledge and opinion in the American electorate. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Nimmo, D. (1978). Political communication and public opinion in America. Santa Monica, CA: Goodyear.

Noelle-Neumann, E . (1984). The spiral of silence: Public opinion--our social skin. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

Noguera, F. (1990, April/May). South polls: What the hell happened in Nicaragua? Campaigns and Elections, 11, 35-37.

Norrander, B. (1997). Understanding public opinion. Washington, D. C.: Congressional Quarterly Books.

Norris, P. (2001). Too close to call: Opinion polls in campaign 2000. Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 6, 3-10.

Obermayer, A. (1989, March/April). A bad year for the polls. Campaigns and Elections, 9, 47-49, 62.

Ottati, V. O., Wyer, R. S., Kuklinaki, J., Riggle, E. J., & Schwarz, N. (1988). Cognitive and affective bases of opinion research. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 404-.

Owen, D. (1991). Media Messages in American presidential elections. Greenwood Press. (see chap 4, pp. 89-110 - Public opinion polls: A double-edged sword.)

Page, B. I., & Shapiro, R. Y. (1984). Presidents as opinion leaders: Some new evidence. Policy Studies Journal, 12, 649-661.

Page, B. I., & Shapiro, R. Y. (1989). Educating and manipulating the public. In M. Margolis & G. A. Mauser (Eds.), Manipulating public opinion: Essays on public opinion as a dependent variable (pp. 294-320). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Page, B. I., Shapiro, R. Y., & Dempsey, G. R. (1987). What moves public opinion? American Political Science Review, 81, 23-43.

Pan, Z.; Abisaid, HJ. L., Paek, H-T., Ye, S., & Houden, D. (2006). Exploring the preceptual gap in percieved effcts of media reprots of opinion polls. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 18, 76-86.

Panagopoulos, C. (2011). Polls and elections: Firing back: Out-party responses to presidential State of the Union Address: 1966-2006. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 41, 604-617.

Panagopoulos, C., & Wielhouwer, R. W. (2008). Polls and elections: The ground War 2000-2004: Strategic targeting in grassroots campaigns. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 38, 347-362.

Paleologos, D. A. (1997). A pollster on polling. American Behavioral Scientist, 40. 1183-1189.

Paletz, D. L., Short, J. Y., Baker, H., Campbell, B. C., Cooper, R. J., & Oeslander, R. M. (1980). Polls in the Media: Content, Credibility and Consequences. Public Opinion Quarterly, 44, 495-513.

Panagopoulos, C. (2011). Polls and elections: Firing back: Out-party responses to presidential State of the Union Address: 1966-2006. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 41, 604-617.

"Polls! Polls! Polls! (several article of August Campaign & Elections, 19, are on practical aspects of polling)

Price, V., & Stroud, N. J. (2006). Public attitues toward polls: Evidence from the 2000 U.S. presidential election. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 18, 393-421.

Price, V., Cappella, J. N., & Nir, L. (2002). Does disagreement contribute to more deliberative opinions? Political Communication, 19, 95-112.

Ratzan, S. C. (1989). The real agenda setters: Pollsters in the 1988 presidential campaign. American Behavioral Scientist, 32, 451-463.

Rhee, J. W. (1996). How polls drive campaign coverage: The Gallup/CNN/USA Today tracking poll and USA Today’s coverage of the 1992 presidential Campaign. Political Communication, 13, 213-229.

Reinson, K. F. (2006). The illusion of public opinion: Fact and artifact in American public opinion polls. Journal of Communication Inquiry, 30, 90-94.

Robinson, J. P., & Meadow, R. (1982). Polls apart. Cabin John, MD: Seven Locks Press.

Roper, B. W. (1985). Political polls. Society, 22, 28-31.

Roper, B. W. (1986). Evaluating polls with poll data. Public Opinion Quarterly, 50, 10-16.

Rosenblatt, A. J. (1999) On-line polling: Methodological limitations and implications for electronic democracy. Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 2, 30-44.

Ross, S. S. (2004). Exit polling: What's the use? Television Quarterly, 35, 9-13.

Rottinghaus, B. (2008). Opening the president's mailbag: The Nixon administration's rhetorical use of public opinion mail, Presidential Studies Quarterly 38, 61–77.

Rottinghaus, B. (2008). Presidential leadership on foreign policy, opinion polling, and the possible limits of "crafted talk". Political Communication, 25, 138-157,

Rottinghaus, B. (2003). Reassessing public opinion polling in the Truman administration. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 33, 325-332.

Salwen, M. B. (1985). Does poll coverage improve as presidential vote nears? Journalism Quarterly, 62, 887-891.

Salwen, M. B. (1985). The reporting of public opinion polls during presidential years, 1968-1984. Journalism Quarterly, 62, 272-277.

Salwen, M. B. (1987). Credibility of newspaper opinion polls: Source, source intent and precision. Journalism Quarterly, 64, 813-819.

Satake, E. (1994). Bayesian inference in polling technique: 1992 presidential polls. Communication Research, 21, 396-407.

Selnow, G. W. (1991). Polls and computer technologies: Ethical considerations. In R. E. Denton (Ed.), Ethical dimensions of political communication (pp. 171-197). Westport, CT: Praeger.

Schiff. F. (1994). Deconstructing "attitude structures" in public opinion studies, Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 11, 287-297.

Shapiro, R. Y., & Jacobs, L. R. (2001). Presidents and polling: Politicians, pandering, and the study of democratic responsiveness. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 31, 150-167.

Shaw, G. M., & Ragland, A. S. (2000). The Polls-trends: Political reform. Public Opinion Quarterly, 64, 206-226.

Skalaban, A. (1988). Do the polls affect elections? Some 1980 evidence, Political Behavior, 10, 136-150.

Special Issue: Political opinion polling. 1987). Journal of the Market Research Society, 29, [entire issue].

Splichal, S. (1999). Public opinion: Developments and controversies in the twentieth century. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Stonecash, J. M. (2003). Political polling: Strategic information in campaigns. Rowman & Littlefield.

Stovall, J. G., & Solomon, J. (1984). The poll as a news event in the 1980 presidential campaign. Public Opinion Quarterly, 48, 615-623.

Sudman, S. (1986). Do exit polls influence voting behavior? Public Opinion Quarterly, 50, 331-339.

Traugott, M. (2003). Can we trust the polls? It all depends. Brookings review, 21, .

Traugott, M. W (1991). Public attitudes about news organizations, campaign coverage, and polls. In P. J. Lavrakas and J. K. Holley (Eds), Polling and presidential election coverage (p.135-150 ). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Traugott, M. W. & Lavrakas, P. J. (1996). Voter’s guide to election polls. Chatham, NJ: Chatham House Publishers.

Tringali, B. C. (1995, August). Three trends to watch in political polling. Campaigns & Elections, 16, 20-21.

Tsfait, Y. (2003). Does audience skepticism of the media matter in agenda setting? Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 47, .

Vatz, R. E., & Weinberg, L. S. (1987). Media and polling: Measuring and creating the salience of George Bush as "wimp." Mass Comm Review, 14, 23-29.

Visser, P. S., Krosnick, J. A., Marquette, J., & Curtin, M. (1996). Mail surveys for election forecasting: An evaluation of the Columbia Dispatch poll. Public Opinion Quarterly, 60, 181-227.

Von Hoffman, N. (1980). Public opinion polls: Newspapers making their own news? Public Opinion Quarterly, 44, 572-573.

Von Szeliski, H. (1998, August). Polling power: An insider's guide to effective survey research in political campaigns. Campaigns & Elections, 19, 18-22, 50-51, 62.

Wardle, C., Kenski, K., Orr, D., & Jamieson, K. H. (2001). The Voter News Service and the 2000 election night calls. American Behavioral Scientist, 44, 2306-2313.

Weaver-Lariscy, R. A., Tinkham, S. F., & Nordstrom, K. E. (1987). The use and impact of polling as a strategic planning tool in congressional campaigns. Political Communication Review, 12, 1-24.

Wilson, C. (1998, August). Polling job performance and favorability Three approaches. Campaign & Elections, 19, 26-, 28-29.

Welch, R. L. (2002). Polls, polls, and more polls: An evaluation of how public opinion polls are reported in newspapers. Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 7, 102-

West, D. M. (1991). Polling effects in election campaigns. Political Behavior, 13, 151-163.

Wills, G. (1984). The networks use of polls: Who won at San Francisco? Columbia Journalism Review, 23, 27-35.

Wlezien, C., & Erikson, R. S. (2007). The horse race: What polls reveal at the election campign unfolds. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 19, 74-88.

Wolf, M. R., & Holian, D. B. (2006). Polls, elite opinion, and the president: How information and issue saliency affect approval. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 36, 584-605.

Wu, W., & Weaver, D. (1997). On-line democracy or on-line demagoguery? Public opinion "polls"on the internet. Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 2 (4). 71-86.

Zaller, J. (2001). Monica Lewinsky and the mainsprings of American politics. In W. L. Bennett & R. M. Entman (Eds.), Mediated politics: Communication in the future of democracy (pp. 252-278). New York: NY: Cambridge University Press

Zaller, J. (1991). Information, values, and opinion. American Political Science Review, 85, 1215-1247.

Zaller, J. (1994). Positive constructs of public opinion. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 11, 287-297.

Zhao, X., & Bleske, G. L. (1998). Horse-Race polls and audience issue learning. The Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 3, 13-34.

Return to Political Communication HomePage