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See Political Humor Bibliography
Benoit, W. L., Kluykovski, A. A., McHale, J. P., Airne, D. (2001). A fantasy theme analysis of political cartoons on the Clinton-Lewinsky-Starr affair. Critical Studies in Media Communication. 18, 377-394.
Blaisdell, T. C., Jr., et al. (1976). The American presidency in political cartoons: 1776-1976. Peredgrine Smith.
Bohrmann, E. G., Koester, J., & Bennett, J. (1978). Political cartoons and salient rhetorical fantasies: An empirical analysis of the ’76 presidential campaign. Communication Monographs, 45, 317-329.
Bostdorff, D. (1987). Making light of James Watt: A Burkean approach to the form and attitude of political cartoons. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 73, 43-59.
Buell, E. H., Jr., & Maus, M. (1988). Is the pen mightier than the word? Editorial cartoons and 1988 presidential nominating politics, PS: Political Science and Politics, 21, 847-858.
Danjoux, I. (2007). Reconsidering the decline of the editorial cartoon. PS: Political Science & Politics, 40, 245-248.
Conners, J. L. (2005). Visual representations of the 2004 presidential campaign: Political cartoons and popular culture references. American Behavioral Scientist, 49, 479 - 487.
DeSousa, M. A. (1984). Symbolic action and pretended insight: The Ayatollah Khomeni in U.S. editorial cartoons. In M. J. Medhurst & T. W. Benson (Ed.), Rhetorical dimensions of media: A critical casebook (pp. 204-230). Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.
DeSousa, M. A., Medhurst, M. J. (1982). Political cartoons and American culture: Significant symbols of campaign 1980. Studies in Visual Communication, 8, 84-97.
Edwards, J. L. (2001). Running in the shadows in campaign 2000: Candidate metaphors in editorial cartoons. American Behavioral Scientist, 44, 2140-2151.
Edwards, J. L.(1997). Political cartoons in the 1988 presidential campaign: Image, metaphor, and narrative. New York: Garland Press.
Edward, J. L. (1995, May). Wee George and the seven dwarfs: Caricature and metaphor in campaign 88 cartoons. INKS: Cartoon and Comic Art Studies, 26-34.
Edwards, J. L., & Ware, L. (2005). Representing the public in campaign media: A political cartoon perspective. American Behavioral Scientist, 49, 466 - 478.
Edwards, J. L. & Winkler, C. K. (1997). Representative form and the visual ideograph: The Iwo Jima image in editorial cartoons. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 83, 289-310.
Fischer, R. A. (1990). The Lucifer legacy: Boss Tweed and Richard Nixon as generic sleaze symbols in cartoon art. Journal of American Culture, 13, 1-19.
Fischer, R. A. (1995, February). The "monumental" Lincoln as an American cartoon convention. INKS Cartoon and Comic Art Studies, 13, 12-25.
Fischer, R. A. (1996). Them damned pictures: Explorations in American political cartoon art. North Haven, CT: Archon Books.
Gamson, W. A., & Stuart, D. (1992). Media discourse as a symbolic contest: The bomb in political cartoons. Sociological forum, 55-86.
Gilmartin, P. (2001). Still the Angel in the Household: Political Cartoons of Elizabeth Dole's Presidential Campaign. Women and Politics, 22, 51-67.
Greenberg, J. (2002). Framing and Temporality in Political Cartoons: A Critical Analysis of Visual News Discourse, Canadian-Review-of-Sociology-and-Anthropology; 39, 181-219.
Handleman, A. (1984). Political cartoonists as they saw themselves during the 1950's. Journalism Quarterly, 61, 137-141.
Hess, S, & Milton, K. (1968). The ungentlemanly art: A history of American political cartoons. New York: Macmillan.
Hill, A. (1984). The Carter campaign in retrospect: Decoding the cartoons. In M. J. Medhurst & T. W. Benson (Eds.), Rhetorical dimensions in media: A critical casebook (pp. 182-203). Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.
Katz, H. (2004). An historic look at political cartoons. Nieman Reports, 58, 44–6.
Kenner-Muir, J. (1985, November). Getting closer to the truth: Are there really any ethics in political cartoons? Paper presented at the meeting of the Speech Communication Association. Denver, Colorado.
Kenner-Muir, J. (1986) . Political cartoons and synecdoche: A rhetorical analysis of the 1984 Presidential campaign. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
Koetzle, W. M., & Brunell, T. L. (1996). Lip-reading, draft-dodging, and Perot-noia: Presidential campaigns in editorial cartoons. The Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 1, 94-115.
Lamb, C. (2004). Drawn to extremes: The use and abuse of editorial cartoons. NY: Columbia University Press.
Langeveld, W. (1981). Political cartoons as a medium of political communication. International Journal of Political Education, 4, 343-371.
Lordan, E. J. (2005). Poliitcs, Ink: How America's cartoonists skewer politicians from King George III to George Dubya. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield
Lordan, E. J. (2005). The art of satire: The history and future of American political cartoons. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Maggio, J. (2007). Comics and cartoons: A democratic art-form, PS: Political Science and Politics, 40, 237-239.
Mello, W. B. (2007). Political cartooning in the 21st century: A changing and dynamic future. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 24, 78-80.
Morris, R. (1992). Cartoons and the political system: Canada, Quebec, Wales, and England. Canadian Journal of Communication, 17, 253-258.
Moss, D. (2007). The Animated Persuader. PS: Political Science & Politics, 40, 241-244
Plumb, S (2004). Politicians as superheroes: The subversion of political authority using a pop cultural Icon in the cartoons of Steve Bell. Media, Culture & Society, 26, . 432-439.
Root, J. R. (1996). Is a picture worth a thousand words? A Q methodological study of political cartoons. Dissertation at University of Houston. (see Political Comm. 13, 363-364.)
Sewell, E. H. (1998). "Torture-by-Tedium" or editorial cartoons during the 1996 presidential campaign. In R. E. Denton (Ed.) The 1996 presidential campaign: A communication perspective (pp. 161-177). Westport, CT: Praeger.
Sewell, E. H., Jr. (1996). "the bad days are part of it": Editorial cartoonists on Clinton's first year. In R. E. Denton, and R. L. Holloway (Eds.). The Clinton presidency: Images, issues, and communication strategies (pp. 77-102) . Westport, CT: Praeger.
Somers, P.P. (1989). Editorial cartooning and caricature A reference guide. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press
Steakley, J. D. (1983). Iconography of a scandal: Political cartoons and the Eulenburg affair. Studies in Visual Communication, 9, 20-51.
Zillman, D., Bryant, J., & Cantor, J. R. (1974). Brutality of assault in political cartoons affecting humor appreciation. Journal of Research in Personality, 7, 334-345.