POLITICAL SPOT ADVERTISING
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Allan Louden, Wake Forest University (louden@wfu.edu
Last Updated:

Political Advertising Web Resources

Lyndon Johnson's Daisy Ad

Although this political ad for Lyndon Johnson aired only once, it remains one of the most famous political ads to date.

Abbe, O., Herrnson, P. Magleby, D., & Patterson, K.. (2000). Campaign professionalism, negative advertising, and electoral success in U.S. house races. Presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association.

Abeshouse, R. P. (1984). On the impact of televised debates and advertising. Campaigns & Elections, 5, 41-44.

Adam, C. (1984). 30-second politics. New York Times Book Review, 21.

Adasiewicz, C., Rivlin, D., Stanger, J., & Zimmer, E. A. (1998). Free television for presidential candidates: The 1996 experiment. Political Communication, 15, [on CD Rom]

Aden, R. C. (1989). Televised political advertising: A review of the literature. Political Communication Review, 14, 1-18.

Ailes, R. (1991). TV-spot critics: "Boring and biased." Washington Journalism Review, 13, 27.

Ailes, R. (1985). Dog-gone colleague haunts senate. Campaigns and Elections. 6, 57-60.

Albert, J. A. (198?). The remedies available to candidates who are defamed by television or radio commercials of opponents. Vermont Law Review, 11, 33-73.

Alger, D. E. (1996). Constructing campaign messages and public understanding: The 1990 Wellstone-Boschwitz senate race in Minnesota. In A. N. Crigler (Ed.), The psychology of political communication (pp. 65-6). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Alger, D. E. (1991). Schizophrenia: The media and the incumbent reelection issues [Wellstone campaign]. PS: Political Science & Politics, 24, 188-193.

Allen, B., Stevens, D. P., Marfleet, G. Sullivan, J., & Alger, D. (2007). Local news and perceptions of the rhetoric of political advertising. American Politics Research, 35, 506-540.

Allen, M. & Burrell, N. (2002). The negativity effect in political advertising: A meta-analysis. In J. P. Dilliard & M. Pfau (Eds.), The persuasion handbook: Developments in theory and practice (pp. 83-96). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Alston, C. (1991, March 16). Forcing down costs of TV ads appeals to both parties. Congressional Weekly Report, 49, 650-651.

Alston, C. (1991, March 16). Candidates are charged TV ad rates that often are separate and unequal. Congressional Weekly Report, 49, 647-650.

Alston, C. (1991, March 23). The election-reform debate keeps its partisan shape, Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 49, 723-725.

Alwitt, L. F., Deighton, J., & Grimm, J. (1991). Reactions to political advertising depends on the nature of the voter-candidate bond. Television and political advertising, Vol. 1: Psychological processes (pp. 329-350). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

And the beat goes on: In three special elections, George Bush's negative tactics were pervasive. Campaigns and Elections, 10, 9-10.

Ansolabehere, S., & Iyengar, S. (1996). Going negative: How political ads shrink and polarize the electorate. New York: Free Press.

Ansolabehere, S., & Iyengar, S. (1996). Can the press monitor campaign advertising? An experimental study. Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 1, 72-86.

Ansolabehere, S., & Iyengar, S. (1996). The craft of political advertising: A progress report. In D. C. Murtz, P. M. Sniderman, & R. A. Brody (Eds.), Political persuasion and attitude change (pp,. 101-122.) Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Ansolabehere, S., & Iyengar, S. (1995). Winning through advertising: Itís all in the context. In J. A. Thurber & C. J. Nelson (Eds.), Campaigns and elections American style (pp. 101-111). Boulder, CO: Westview.

Ansolabehere, S.,& Iyengar, S. (1996). Can the press monitor campaign advertising? Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 1, 72-86.

Ansolabehere, S., & Iyengar, S. (1994). Riding the wave and claiming ownership over issues: The joint effects of advertising and news coverage in campaigns. Public Opinion Quarterly, 58, 335-357.

Ansolabehere, S., Iyengar, S., & and Simon, A. (1999). Replicating experiments using aggregate and survey data. American Political Science Review, 93, 901–910.

Ansolabehere, S., Iyengar, S., & Simon, A. (1994). Does attack advertising demobilize the electorate? American Political Science Review, 88, 829-838.

Ansolabehere, S, Iyengar, S., & Valentino, N. (1993). The effects of campaign advertising on voter turnout [Mineo]. Los Angeles: University of California, Los Angeles.

Armstrong, R. (1988). The next hurrah: The communications revolution in American politics. New York: William Morrow.

Airne, D., & Benoit, W. L. (2005). Political television advertising in campaign 2000. Communication Quarterly, 53, 473-492.

Arterton, C. (1992). The persuasive art in politics: the role of paid advertising in presidential campaigns. In M. D. McCubbins (Ed.). Under the watchful eye: Managing presidential campaigns in the television era. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press.

Ashworth, S., & Clinton, J. D. (2006). Does Advertising Exposure Affect Turnout? Quarterly Journal of Political Science, 2, 27–41.

Atkeson, L. R., & Partin, R. W. (2001). Candidate advertisements, media coverage, and citizen attitudes: The agendas and roles of senators and governors in a federal system. Political Research Quarterly, 54, 795-813.

Atkin, C. (1977). Effects of campaign advertising and newscasts on children. Journalism Quarterly, 54, 503-508.

Atkin, C., Bowen, L., Nayman, O. B., & Sheinkopf, K. G. (1973). Quality versus quantity in televised political ads. Public Opinion Quarterly, 37, 216-228.

Atkin, C., & Heald, G. (1976). Effects of political advertising. Public Opinion Quarterly, 40, 216-228.

Axelrod, D. (1988). Broadcast views. (television and political advertising). Advertising Age, 59, 88-90.

Axford, B., Madgwick, P, & Turner, J. (1992). Image management, stunts and dirty tricks of political brands in television campaigns. Media, Culture & Society, 14, 637-654. [Britain]

Ayres, W. (2001, October). Can campaign advertising be on the level? Campaigns & Elections, 22, 20-21, 23-24.

Baer, D. (1990). A newsman's crusade: David Broder is mad as hell at America's dirty politics. U. S. News and World Report, 108, 25?

Bailey, D. (1988). Famous for 15 minutes: The effect of television on politics.... Campaigns and Elections, 8, 47-52.

Baker, F. W. (2009). Political campaigns and political advertising.Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Press.

Ballotti, R. J. (1999). Verbal style in presidential advertising: Computer analysis of the 1996 campaign spots. In L. L. Kaid & D. G. Bystrom (Eds.), The electronic election: Perspectives on the 1996 campaign communication (pp. 223-232), Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum.

Ballotti, R. J. & Kaid, L. L. (2000). Examining verbal style in presidential campaign spots. Communication Studies, 51, 258-273.

Ballotti, R. J., Jr. (1997). Activity, Certainty, Optimism, and Realism: The Verbal Style in Televised Presidential Campaign Commercials. Dissertation Abstracts International, Section A: The Humanities and Social Sciences (DAIA); 58 (3).

Banker, S. (1992). The ethics of political marketing practices, The rhetorical perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 11, 843-848. [on negative spots]

Bannon, B. (1982). NCPAC's role in the 1980 senate elections. Campaigns and Elections, 3, 43-46.

Bannon, B. (1983). NCPAC in the 80s: Action v. reaction. Campaign and Elections, 3, 36-43.

Banwart, M. C. (2002). Videostyle and webstyle in 2000: Comparing the gender differences of candidate presentations in political advertising and on the Internet. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Oklahoma, Norman.

Banwart, M. C. & Bystrom, D. G., (2005). Gendered reactions: Young voters' responses to the 2004 presidential advertisement.American Behavioral Scientist, 49. 314-325.

Banwart, M. C., Bystrom, D. G., Robertson, T., & Miller, J. (2003). Issues agendas in candidate messages versus media coverage: Are women and men on the same page? In L. L Kaid, J. C. Tedesco, D. G. Bystrom, & M. S. McKinney (Eds.) The millennium election: Communication in the 2000 campaign (pp. 147-163) . New York: Rowman & Littlefield.

Banwart, M. C., & McKinney, M. S. (2005) A gendered influence in campaign debates? Analysis of mixed-gender United States senate and gubernatorial debates. Communication Studies, 56, 353-373.

Barbatsis, G. S. (1996). "Look, and I will show you something you will want to see": Pictorial engagement in negative political campaign commercials. Argumentation and Advocacy: The Journal of the American Forensics Association, 33, 69-80.

Barkin, S. M. (1986). Eisenhower's secret strategy: Television planning in the 1952 campaign. Journal of Advertising History, 9, 18-28.

Bartels, L. M. (2000). Campaign quality: standards for evaluation, benchmarks for reform. In L. M. Bartels and L. Vavreck (Eds.), Campaign reform: Insights and evidence (pp. 1-61). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Basil, M., Schooler, C., & Reeves, B. (1991). Positive and negative political advertising: Effectiveness of ads and perceptions of candidates. In F. Biocca (Ed.), Television and political advertising, Vol 1: Psychological processes (pp 245-262). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Baskin, O. W. (1975). The effects of televised political advertisements on voters' perceptions about candidates (Doctoral dissertation, University of Texas, Austin, 1975). Dissertation Abstracts International, 36, 6355A.

Bates, S. (1990). Political ads: Journalists as jurors. The American Enterprise, 1, 15-20.

Bates, S. (1988). Political advertising regulation: An unconstitional menace? Link

Bates, S., & Diamond, E. (1992). Dammed spots: A defense of thirty second campaign ads. New Republic, 14-18.

Battaglio, S. (1988, August). Roger Ailes: Taking the gloves off for George Bush. Campaign Industry News, 2, 22-23.

Baukus, R. A., Payne, J. G., & Reisler, M. S. (1985). Negative polispots: Mediated arguments in the political arena. In J. R. Cox, M. O. Sillars, & G. B. Walker (Eds.), Argument and social practice: Proceedings of the Fourth SCA/AFA Conference on Argumentation (pp. 236-252). Annandale, VA: Speech Communication Association.

Beck, D., Taylor, P., Stangler, J., & Rivlin, D. (1997). Issue advocacy during the 1996 campaign. Annenberg Public Policy Center, University of Pennsylvania. http://www.appcpenn.org/political/issueads/REP16.PDF

Becker, L. B., & Doolittle, J. C. (1975). How repetition affects evaluations of and information seeking about candidates. Journalism Quarterly, 52, 611-619.

Beiler, D. (1986). The classics of political television advertising: A viewer's guide. Washington, DC: Campaigns and Elections, Inc.

Beiler, D. (1987). White knights, dark horses: A longshot wins at the wire in this year's political Kentucky Derby and delivers sobering news to future favorites. Campaigns and Elections, 8, 42-53.

Beltrán, U. (2007). The combined effect of advertising and news coverage in the Mexican presidential campaign of 2000. Political Communication, 24, 37-63.

Bennett, Manheim, J. B. (2006). The one-step flow of communication. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 608, 213-232.

Bennet, J. (2000, Feb. 27). The fear of loathing on the campaign trail. New York Times Magazine, 52-55. [the making of McCain spots]

Bennett, C. (1997). Assessing the impact of ad watches on the strategic decision-making process: A comparative analysis of ad watches in the 1992 and 1996 presidential election. American Behavioral Scientist, 40. 1161-1182.

Benoit, W. L. (2004). Election outcome and topic of political campaign attacks. Southern Communication Journal, 69, 348-355.

Benoit, W. L. (2003). The Emergence of Discursive Conventions in Presidential Advertising, 1952-2000. Advertising & Society, 4, .

Benoit, W. L. (2003). Presidential campaign discourse as a causal factor in election outcome. Western Journal of Communication. 67, 97-112.

Benoit, W. L., (2003). State of the economy and presidential television spots. Communication Research Reports, 20, 269-276.

Benoit, W. L. (2001). The functional approach to presidential television spots: Acclaiming, attacking, defending 1952-2000. Communication Studies, 52, 109-126.

Benoit, W. L. (2000). A functional analysis of political advertising across media, 1998. Communication Studies, 51, 274-295.

Benoit, W. L. (2000). Comparing the Clinton and Dole advertising campaigns: Identification and division in 1996 presidential television spots. Communication Research Reports, 17, 39-48.

Benoit, W. L. (1999). Seeing spots: A functional analysis of presidential television advertisements, 1952-1996. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Benoit, W. L., Airne, D. (2009). Non-presidential political advertising in campaign 2004. Human Communication, 12, 91-117.

Benoit, W. L., & Airne, D. (2005). Issue ownership for non-presidential television spots. Communication Quarterly, 53, 493-503.

Benoit, W. L., & Hansen, G. J. (2002). Issue adaptation of presidential television spots and debates to primary and general audiences. Communication Research Reports, 19, 138-145.

Benoit, W. L., & McHale, J. P. (2003). Presidential candidates' television spots and personal qualities. Southern Communication Journal, 68, 319-334.

Benoit, W. L., Pier, P. M., & Blaney, J. R. (1997). A functional approach to televised political spots: Acclaiming, attacking, defending. Communication Quarterly, 45, 1-20.

Benson, T. W. (1981). Another Shooting in cowtown. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 67, 347-406.

Benze, J. G., & Declerq, E. R. (1985). Content of television political spot ads for female candidates. Journalism Quarterly, 62, 278-283, 288.

Berkovitz, T. L. (1985). Political television advertising objectives: The viewpoint of political media consultants (Doctoral dissertation, Wayne State University, 1985). Dissertation Abstracts International, 46, 1117A.

Berndt, K., Fowler, E. F., Goldstein, K., Hale, M., Pelika, S., Rivlin, J., Steverns, D., & Williams, A. (2003). Political information flows in the 2002 elections, Midwest Political Science Association. http://mpsa.indiana.edu/conf2003papers/1032103228.pdf

Biocca, F. (1991). Models of a successful and an unsuccessful ad: An exploratory analysis, In F. Biocca (Ed.), Television and political advertising, Vol. 1: Psychological processes,(pp. 91-122). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Biocca, F. (1991). Some limitations of earlier "symbolic" approaches to political communication, In F. Biocca (Ed.), Television and political advertising, Vol. 2: Signs, codes, and images, (pp 11-16). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Biocca, F. (1991). Looking for units of meaning in political ads, In F. Biocca (Ed.), Television and political advertising, Vol. 2: Signs, codes, and images, (pp. 17-25). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Biocca, F. (1991). The analysis of discourses within the political ad, In F. Biocca (Ed.), Television and political advertising, Vol. 2: Signs, codes, and images, (pp. 45-59). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Biocca, F. (1991). The role of communication codes in political ads, In F. Biocca (Ed.), Television and political advertising, Vol. 2: Signs, codes, and images, (pp. 27-43). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Biocca, F. (1991). The orchestration of codes and discourses: Analysis of semantic framing, In F. Biocca (Ed.), Television and political advertising, Vol. 2: Signs, codes, and images, (pp 61-89). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Biocca, F. (1991). Viewers' mental models of political messages: Toward a theory of the semantic processing of television, In F. Biocca (Ed.), Television and political advertising, Vol 1: Psychological processes (pp. 27-89). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Biocca, F. (1991). What is the language of political advertising, In F. Biocca (Ed.), Television and political advertising, Vol. 2: Signs, codes, and images, (pp. 3-10). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Bird, W. L. (1986). The father of political TV 'spots.' [William Benton - Conn.]. Campaigns and Elections, 6, 68-72.

Birdsell, D. S. (1990). An argumentative approach to issues and images in political advertising. Unpublished manuscript, Baruch College, New York.

Bjorkman, J. J. (1986). Political advertising from Lehman to Smith Haven Mall: Evolving federal and state restrictions on political advertising. Annual Survey of American Law 1985, 713-742.

Blankenburg, W. B. (1977). Nixon vs. the networks: Madison Avenue and Wall Street. Journal of Broadcasting, 21, 163-175.

Boer, A. (2011). Continental drift: Contextualizing Citizens United by comparing the divergent British and American approaches to political advertising. Boston College International and Comparative Law Review, 34. 91-115.

Bogart, L. (1983). The case of the 30-second commercial: Why advertising works differently in real life than in the laboratory. Journal of Advertising, 23, 11-19.

Boiney, J A. (1994). The vulnerable voter? A study of the comprehension and evaluation of potentially misleading campaign advertising. (Doctoral Dissertation, Duke University).

Boiney, J., & Paletz, D. L. (1991). In search of the model: Political science versus political advertising perspectives on voter making decisions Television and political advertising, Vol. 1: Psychological processes (pp. 3-25). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Boulard, G. (1990, July). Weekly publisher weathers protests (St. Helena Echo rejects political ads for former KKK leader). Editor & Publisher, 123, 16-17.

Bowen, L. (1994). Time of voting decisions and use of political advertising: The Slade Gorton-Brock Adams senatorial campaign. Journalism Quarterly, 71, 665-676.

Bowen, L., Stamm, K., & Clark, F. (2000). Television reliance and political malaise: A contingency analysis. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 44, 1-15.

Bowers, T. A. (1973). Newspaper political advertising and the agenda-setting function. Journalism Quarterly, 50. 552-556.

Bowers, T. A. (1972). Issue and personality information in newspaper political advertising. Journalism Quarterly, 49, 446-452.

Bowers, T. A. (1975). The coverage of political advertising by the prestige press in 1972. Mass Communication Review, 2, 19-24.

Bowers, T. A. (1977). Candidate advertising: The agenda is the message. In D. L. Shaw & M. E. McCombs (Eds.). The emergence of American political issue. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing.

Boyd, J. M. (1978). An experimental analysis of source credibility and message discrepancy under differential levels of ego-involvement in political television commercials (Doctoral dissertation, University of Southern California, 1978). Dissertation Abstracts International, 38, 5774A.

Boynton, G. R. (1996). The art of campaign advertising. Chatham, NJ: Chatham House [Compact Disk].

Boyle T. P., (2001). Intermedia agenda setting in the 1996 presidential election. Journalism and Mass Communicatoin Quarterly, 78, 26-44.

Boyle, T. P. (1999). Modern mythmaking: political advertisements in two statewide races. New Jersey Journal of Communication, 7, 93-105.

Brader, T. (2006). Campaigning for hearts and minds: How emotional appeals in political ads work. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Brader, T. (2005). Striking a responsive chord: How political ads motivate and persuade voters by appealing to emotions. American Journal of Political Science, 49, 388-405.

Brader, T., & Corrigan, B. (2006, Philadelphia ). How the emotional tenor of ad campaigns affects political participation. Presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.

Bradley, S. D.; Angelini, J. R., &  Lee. S. (2007). Psychophysilogical and memory effects of negative political ads: Aversive, arousing and well remembered. Journal of Advertising, 36, 115-127.

Brazeal, L. M. (2002). A functional analysis of television advertising in congressional campaigns, 1980-2000. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Missouri-Columbia.

Brazeal, L. M., & Benoit, W. L. (2006). On the spot: A functional analysis of congressional television spots, 1980-2004. Communication Studies , 57, 401-420.

Brians, C. L., & Wattenberg, M. P. (1996). Campaign issue knowledge and salience: Comparing reception from TV commercials, TV news, and Newspapers. American Journal of Political Science, 40, 172-193.

Britten, R. S. (1993). A content analysis of televised political advertising in the 1988 presidential campaign. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Illinois.

Broder, D. S. (1989, February 13-9). Who should play cop for campaign ads? The Washington Post National Weekly Edition, 6, 8-.

Brooks, D. J. (2000). When candidates attack: The effects of negative campaigning on voter turnout in senate elections. Dissertation. Yale University.

Brooks, D. J. (2006). The resilient voter: Moving toward closure in the debate over negative campaigning and turnout. Journal of Politics,68, : 684–696.

Brooks, D. J., & Geer, J. G. (2007). Beyond negativity: The effects of incivilityon the electorate. American Journal of Political Science, 51, 1-16.

Brown, N. (1989, July 22). Senators divide on proposals to tame negative TV ads. Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report. 1890.

Brownstein, C. N. (1971). Communication strategies and the electoral decision making process. Experimental Study of Politics, ?, 37-0.

Bryan, K. M. (1987). Content analysis of televised political advertising in low involvement political races. Unpublished Masters Thesis, University of Texas at Austin.

Bryant, J. (1995). Paid media advertising. In J. A. Thurber & C. J. Nelson (Eds.), Campaigns and elections American style (pp. 84-100). Boulder, CO: Westview.

Bucy, E. and Newhagen, J. E. (1999). The micro- and macrodrama of politics on television: effects of media format on candidate evaluations. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 43, 193-210.

Budesheim, T. L., Houston, D. A., & DePaola, S. J. (1996). Persuasiveness of in-group and out-group political messages: The case of negative political campaigning. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 523-534.

Bullock, D. (1994). The influence of political attack advertising on undecided voters: An experimental study of message strategy. Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Arizona.

Bush bashing, Perot smashing: Negative ads Clinton will positively love (1992, September). Campaigns & Elections, 13, 33-36.

Burdan, M., & Meyer, C. (1989, September). Flower power: Twenty-five years later, Tony Schwartz's milestone still upsets Barry Goldwater. Campaigns & Elections, 10, 36-37.

Burgoon, M., Pfau, M., & Birk, T. S. (1995). An inoculation theory explanation for the effects of corporate issue/advocacy advertising campaigns. Communication Research, 22, 485-505.

Burrow, C. H., Clyde, T. M., & Rothberg, M. D. (2004). Negative issue advertisements: A practical primer, .Communications Lawyer; 22, 7-9.

Buss, T. F., & Hofstetter, C. R. (1976). An analysis of the logic of televised campaign advertisements: The 1972 presidential campaign. Communication Research, 3, 367-92.

Bybee, C. R., McLeod, J. M., Luetcher, W. D., & Garramone, G. (1981). Mass communication and voter volatility. Public Opinion Quarterly, 45, 69-0.

Bystrom, D. (2006). Advertising, web sites, and media coverage: Gender and communication along the campaign trail. In S. J. Carroll & R. L. Fox. Gender and elections: Shaping the future of American politics (pp. 169-188). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Bystrom, D. G. (1995). Candidate gender and the presentation of self: The videostyles of men and women in U. S. senate campaigns. Dissertation completed at the University of Oklahoma. (Reviewed in Political Communication, 13, 487-489, 1996).

Bystrom, D. G., & Kaid, L. L. (2002). Are women candidates transforming campaign communication? A comparison of advertising videostyles in the 1990s. In C. S. Rosenthal (Ed.), Women transforming Congress (pp. 146-169). Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.

Bystrom, D. G., & Miller, J. L. (1999). Gendered communication styles and strategies in campaign 1996: The videostyles of women and men candidates. In L. L. Kaid & D. G. Bystrom (Eds.), The electronic election: Perspectives on the 1996 campaign communication (pp. 293-302), Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum.

Cable delivers electorate, says panel (1988). Broadcasting, 11, 76-7.

A "cheap" response: Labeled "big" spender', a campaign moves quickly (1986). [Leahy, VT] Campaigns and Elections, 7, 63.

Caliendo, S. M. & McIlwain, C. D. (2005). Race and Political Advertising. In Samuel J. Best and Benjamin Radcliff (Eds.) Polling America: An Encyclopedia of Public Opinion. Westport, CT: Praeger. 641-646.

Calvert, C. (1997). When first amendment principles collide: Negative political advertising & the demobilization of democratic self-governance. Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review, 30, 1497-?.

Campaign Advertising: Hearings before the subcommittee on Telecommunications and Finance (1991). House: Committee on Energy and Commerce. (Y 4.En 2/3:101-203).

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Candidates Slow to Bring Political Advertising Dollars to the Web (2004). Online Journalism Review, Annenberg. http://www.ojr.org/ojr/glaser/1075699362.php

Cannon, D. S. (1985). The power of televised political advertising: implications for its role in a non-presidential race. Dissertation at University of West Florida. Dissertation Abstracts.

Cappela, J. N., & Jamieson, K. H. (1994). Broadcast adwatch effects: A field experiment. Communication Research, 21, 342-356.

Cappela, L., & Taylor, R. D. (1992). An analysis of the effectiveness of negative political campaigning. Business and Public Affairs, 18, 10-17.

Carlson, T. (2001). Gender and Political Advertising across Cultures: A Comparison of Male and Female Political Advertising in Finland and the US. European Journal of Communication,16, 131-154.

Carver, D. (2007). What we see on the TeeVee: The average American, godlike announcers, and neither fear nor loathing in the 1972 election. Rethinking History, 11, 203-214.

Case, C. C. (1991). No more Mr. nasty. Campaign Magazine, 4 , 1, 6-7.

Caywood, C. L., (1985). A constitutional jeopardy theory: Toward a novel theory of political advertising regulation under first amendment and commercial speech doctrines. Unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Caywood, C. L. (1989, Feb. 2). Political ads in jeopardy, Advertising Age, 20.

Caywood, C. L. & Christ, W. (1992, September). The Daisy Wheel Scale: A classification system designed to help you gauge the tone and content of media campaigns in your race. Campaign, 6, 301.

Caywood, C. L., & Laczniak, G. R. (1985).Unethical political advertising: Decision considerations for policy and evaluation. In M. J. Houston and R. J. Lutz (Eds), Marketing communication- theory and research,(pp. 37-41). Chicago:American Marketing Association.

Caywood, C. L., & Preston, I. (1989). The continuing debate on political advertising: Toward a jeopardy theory of political advertising as regulated free speech. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, 8, 204-226.

Chaffee, S. H., Zhao, X., & Leshner, G. (1994). Political knowledge and the campaign media of 1992. Communication Research, 21, 305-324.

Chaffee, S. H., & Miyo, Y. (1983). Selective exposure and the reinforcement hypothesis: An intergenerational panel study of the 1980 presidential campaign. Communication Research, 10, 3-36.

Chang, C. (2003). Party bias in political advertising processing--results from and experiment involving the 1998 Taipei mayoral election. Journal of Advertising, 32, 55-67.

Chang, C. (2001). The impacts of emotion elicited by print political advertising on candidate evaluation. Media Psychology, 3,, 91-118. (Newspapers)

Chang, C. (2000). Political Advertising in Taiwan and the US: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of the 1996 Presidential Election Campaigns, Asian Journal of Communication, 10, 1-17.

Chang, C. (1996). A test of gender schema theory in political advertising for candidates of different genders: Effects of individual differences and campaign strategy. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison).

Chang, C., & Hitchon, J. C. B. (2004). When does gender count: Further insights into gender schematic processing of female candidates' political advertising, Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 51, 197-208.

Chang, W. H., Park, J., & Shim, S. W. (1998). Effectiveness of Negative Political Advertising. Web Journal of Mass Communication Research, 2 . http://www.scripps.ohiou.edu/wjmcr/vol02/2-1a.HTM

Chanslor, M. D. (1995). The effects of televised political advertisement on candidate image. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Oklahoma).

Chappell, H. W., Jr. (1994). Campaign advertising and political ambiguity. Public Choice, 79, 281-303.

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