NEW TECHNOLOGIES & ELECTIONS

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY
Allan Louden, Wake Forest University (louden@wfu.edu)

3Last Updated: Sunday, 21-Oct-2012 19:15:44 EDT

Abramson, J. F., Arterton, F. C., & Orren, G. R. (1988). The electronic commonwealth: The impact of new media technologies on democratic politics. New York: Basic Books.

Adamic, L., & Glance, N. (2005) The political blogosphere and the 2004 U.S. election: Divided they blog. http://www.blogpulse.com/papers/2005/AdamicGlanceBlogWWW.pdf

Agre, P. E. (2002). Real-time politics: The Internet and the political process. The Information Society 18, 311-331.

Aikens, G. S. (1997). American Democracy and Computer-Mediated Communication: A Case Study in Minnesota. Dissertation, Cambridge Univ. [can be found on-line at http://aikens.org/phd]

Albrecht, S. (2006). Whose voice is heard in online deliberation?: A study of participation and representation in political debates on the internet. Information. Communication & Society, 9, 62-82.

Alverez, R. M. (1999). Information and Elections. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Anderson, D. M., & Arterton, F. C. (Eds.) (2002). The civic Web: Online politics and democratic values. Landham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Pub.

Armstrong, R. (1988). The next hurrah: The communication revolution in American politics. New York: Beech Tree Books.

Arterton, F. C. (1987). Teledemocracy: Can technology protect democracy? Newbury Park: Sage.

Aufderheide, P. (1999). Communication policy and the public interest: The Telecommunications Act of 1996. New York, NY: Guilford Publishers.

Ayres, J. M. (1999). From the streets to the Internet: The cyber-diffusion of contention. Annals of American Political and Social Science, 566, 132-143.

Bachen, C., Raphael, C., Lynn, K-M.; McKee, K., & Philippi, J. (2008). Civic engagement, pedagogy, and information technology on web sites for youth. Political Communication, 25, 290-310.

Bailey, D. (2000). The Y2K political explosion. Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 5, 86-88.

Bakker, T. P., & Vreese, C. H. (2011). Good news for the future? Young people, Internet use, and political participation. Communication Research, 38, 451-470.

Bandwagon: The complete guide to politics on the Internet. Campaigns & Elections, 20, [supplemental section with articles and web addresses]

Banwart, M. C. (2006). Webstyles in 2004: The gendering of candidates on the campaign web sites. In A. P. Williams and J. C. Tedesco. The Internet election: Perspectives on the web in campaign 2004 (pp.37-55). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishing.

Banwart, M. C. (2002). Videostyle and webstyle in 2000: Comparing the gender differences of candidate presentations in political advertising and on the Internet. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Oklahoma, Norman.

Barber, B. R. (1998). The new telecommunication technology: Endless frontier or end of democracy. In R. G. Noll & M E. Prince (Eds.), A communications cornucopia (pp. 72-98). Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

Bartelt, L. C (2012)/ Citizens United and political advertisements: Corporations' lucky loophole to the inregulated Internet. Journal of Corporation Law, 37, 415-433.

Bayer, M. J., & Rodota, J. (1989). Computerized opposition research: The instant parry. In L. J. Sabato (Ed.), Campaigns and elections: A reader in modern American politics (pp. 19-25). Boston: Scott Foresman.

Becker, T., & Slaton, C. D. (2000). The Future of teledemocracy. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.

Benoit, P. J., & Benoit, W. L. (2005). Criteria for evaluating political campaign webpages. Southern Communication Journal, 70, 230-247.

Benoit, W. J., & Benoit, P. J. (2000). The virtual campaign: Presidential primary websites in campaign 2000: American Communication Journal, 3, http://acjournal.org/holdings/vol3/Iss3/curtain.html#4

Bennett, L. W. (2008). Communication and political mobilization: Digital media and the organization of anti-Iraq war demonstrations in the U.S.. Political Communication, 25, 269-289.

Benschoten, E. (2000). Technology, democracy, and the creation of community. National Civic Review, 89, 185-192.

Benson, T. W. (1996). Rhetoric, civility, and community: Political debate on computer bulletin boards. Communication Quarterly, 44, 359-368.

Benson, T. W. (1996). Desktop demos: New communication technologies and the future of the rhetorical presidency. In M. J. Medhurst (Ed.), Beyond the rhetorical presidency (pp. 50-74). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Benson, T. W. (1994). The first e-mail election: Electronic networking and the Clinton campaign. In S. A. Smith (Ed.), Bill Clinton on stump, state, and stage: The Rhetorical road to the White House (pp. 315-340). Fayetteville, AR: University of Arkansas Press.

Berger, R. G. (1991, November). The homemade home video: Bringing your message to voters' living rooms on a budget. Campaigns & Elections, 12, 44-46.

Bertelson, D. A. (1992). Media form and government: Democracy as an archetypal image in the electronic age. Communication Quarterly, 40, 325-337.

Bimber, B., & Davis, R. (2003). Campaigning online: The Internet in U. S. elections. New York: Oxford University Press.

Bimber, B. (2003). Information and American democracy: Technology in the evolution of political power. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Bimber, B. (2000). The Internet and citizen communication with government: Does the medium matter? Political Communication, 16, 409-428.

Bimber, B. (2000). The study of information technology and civic engagement. Political Communication, 17, 329-333.

Bimber, B. (1999). The Internet and citizen communication with government: Does the medium matter? Political Communication, 16, 409-428.

Bimber, B. (1998). The Internet and political mobilization: Research note on the 1996 election season. Social Science Computer Review, 16, 391-401.

Boin, D. S. (1989). The telemarketing center: Nucleus of modern campaign. In L. J. Sabato (Ed.), Campaigns and elections: A reader in modern American politics (pp. 100-105). Boston: Scott Foresman.

Bonafede, D. (1984). Strides in technology are changing the face of political campaigning. National Journal, 657-661.

Bostdorff, D. M. (2004). The Internet rhetoric of the Ku Klux Klan: A case study in web site community building run amok. Communication Studies, 55, 340-361.

Boulianne, S. (2009). Does Internet use affect engagement? A meta-analysis of research. Political Communication, 26, 193-211.

Bowermaster, J. (1988). Elections, the video edge: How candidates are using cassettes to sell their message. Video, ,55-58.

Boyle, T. P. (2003). Prelude to a divide: Who had access in 2000? In L. L Kaid, J. C. Tedesco, D. G. Bystrom, & M. S. McKinney (Eds.) The millennium election: Communication in the 2000 campaign (pp. 201-214) . New York: Rowman & Littlefield.

Brants, K., Huizenga, M., & van Meerten. R. (1996). The new canals of Amsterdam: An exercise in local electronic democracy. Media, Culture & Society, 18, 233-247.

Brown, C., & Waltzer, H. (2004). Organized interest advertorials: Responding to the 9/11 terrorist attack and other national traumas. Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 9, 25-48.

Browning, G. (1996). Electronic democracy: Using the Internet to influence politics. Wilton, CT: Online.

Bryan, C., Tsagarousianou, R., & Tambini, D. (1998). Electronic democracy and the civic networking movement in context. In R. Tsagarousianou, D. Tambini, & C. Bryan (Eds.), Cyberdemocracy: Technology, cities, and civic networks (pp. 1-17). London: Routlege.

Bucy, E. P. (2000) Social Access to the internet. Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 5, 50-61.

Bucy, E. K., D'Angelo, P., & Newhagen, J. E. (1999). The engaged electorate: New media use as political participation. In L. L. Kaid and Bystrom, D. G. (Eds.), The electronic election: Perspectives on the 1996 campaign communication (pp. 335-347). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Burke, G. (1989). Flak to the future: Technological tricks of the trade for the press secretary who has an image to project. Campaigns and Elections, 9, 41.

Bystrom, D. (2006). Advertising, web sites, and media coverage: Gender and communication along the campaign trail. In S. J. Carroll & R. L. Fox. Gender and elections: Shaping the future of American politics (pp. 169-188). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Chadwick, A. (2006). Internet politics: States, Citizens, and new communication technologies. New York: Oxford.

Calabrese, A., & Borchert, M. (1996). Prospects for electronic democracy in the United States: Rethinking communication and social policy. Media, Culture, and Society, 18, 249-268.

Cammaerts, B, & Van Audenhove, L. (2005). Online political debate, unbounded citizenship, and the problematic nature of a transactional public sphere. Political Communication, 22, 179-196.

Candidates Slow to Bring Political Advertising Dollars to the Web (2004). Online Journalism Review, Annenberg. http://www.ojr.org/ojr/glaser/1075699362.php

Cappella, J. N., Price, V., & Nir, L. (2002). Argument repertoire as a reliable and valid measure of opinion quality: Electronic dialogue during campaign 2000. Political Communication, 19, 73-93.

Coleman, S. (2005). The lonely citizen: Indirect representation in an age of networks. Political Communication, 22, 197-214.

Communicating With Congress: How Capitol Hill Is Coping With The Surge In Citizen Advocacy (July 2005), Congressional Management Foundation. http://www.cmfweb.org/SupportingFiles/documents/Communicating_with_Congress_-_Report_1.pdf

Connell, M. (1998). Internet survival guide: Designing lively Web sites. Campaign and Elections, 18, 28-33.

Conrad, R. S. (1994). Winning votes on the information super-highway. Campaigns & Elections, 15, 22-25; 52-54.

Conway, M. (2007). Before the bloggers: The upstart news technology of television at the 1948 political Conventions. American Journalism, 24, 33-58.

Coombs, K. (1999, February). Grassroots lobbying and the internet explosion: New opportunities for issue campaigning. Campaign & Elections, 20, 26-29.

Coombs, W. T. and Cutbirth, C. W. (1998). Mediated political communication, the Internet, and the new knowledge elites: prospects and portents. Telematics and Informatics, 15, 203-217.

Cornfield, M. (2005).Commentary on the impact of the internet on the 2004 election.PEW Internet and American Life Project. http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/Cornfield_commentary.pdf

Cornfield, M. (2004).Presidential campaign advertising on the Internet. PEW Internet and American Life Project. http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Pres_Online_Ads_Report.pdf

Cornfield, M. (2003). Starting to click: Online campaigning in the 2002 elections. In L. J. Sabato (Ed.), Midterm madness: The election of 2002 (pp. 57-66). New York: Rowman & Littlefield.

Cornfield, M. (2000). The Internet and democratic participation. National Civic Review, 89, 235-241.

Cornfield, M., Carson, J. Kalis, A., Simon, E. (May 2005). Buzz, blogs, and beyond: The Internet and the national discourse in the fall of 2004. Pew Internet & American Life Project. http://www.pewinternet.org/ppt/BUZZ_BLOGS__BEYOND_Final05-16-05.pdf

Cornfield, M.  and Kaye, K. (2008). Online political advertising: The prehistoric era continues. http://www.720strategies.com/site/page/online_political_advertising_the_prehistoric_era_continues

Cornfield, M., Safdar, S., & Seiger, J. (1998). The top 10 things we're tired of seeing on candidate Web sites. Campaigns & Elections, 19, 26.

Corrado, A. (1996). Elections in cyberspace: Prospects and problems. In A. Corrado & C. M. Firestone (Eds.). Elections in cyberspace: Toward a new era in American politics (pp. 1-31). Queenstown, MD: Aspen Institute.

Corrado, A., & Firesome, C. M. (Eds.) (1996). Elections in cyberspace: Toward a new era in American politics. Washington, DC: Aspen Institute.

Cuevas, R. (2003) Online campaigning doesn't change votes. http://newsnet.byu.edu/story.cfm/45548

D'Alessio, D. (2000). Adoption of the World Wide Web by American political candidates, 1996-1998. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 44, 556-568.

D'Alessio, D. (1997). Use of the World Wide Web in the 1996 US election. Electoral Studies, 16, 489-500.

Dahlgren, P. (2005). The Internet, public spheres, and political communication: Dispersion and deliberation. Political Communication, 22, 147-162.

Dahlgren, D. (2001). The public sphere and the net: Structure, space, and communication. In W. L. Bennett & R. M. Entman (Eds.), Mediated politics: Communication in the future of democracy (pp. 33-55). New York: NY: Cambridge University Press.

Dahlgren, P. (2000). The Internet and democratization of civic culture. Political Communication, 17: 335-340.

Davis, S., Elin, L., & Reeher, G. (2002). Click On Democracy: The Internet's power to change political apathy into civic action. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Davis, R. (1999). The web of politics: The Internet's impact on the American political system. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Davis, R., & Owen, D. (1998). New media and American politics. New York: Oxford University Press.

Davis, S. (2005). Presidential campaigns fine-tune online strategies. Journalism Studies, 6, 241-244.

Delli Carpini, M. X. (2000). Gen.com: Youth, civic engagement, and the new information environment. Political Communication, 17, 341-349.

Delli Carpini, M. X. (1996). Voters, candidates, and campaigns in the new information age: An overview and assessment. The Harvard International Journal of Press and Politics, 1, 36-56.

De Zúñiga, H. G., Veenstra, A., Vraga, E., & Shah, D. (2010). Digital democracy: Reimagining pathways to political participation. Journal of Information Technology & Politics, 7, 36–51.

Diamond, E., & Silverman, R. A. (1996). White House to your house: Media in virtual America. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Diamond, E, McKay, M., & Silverman, R. (1993). Pop goes politics: New media, interactive formats, and the 1992 campaign. American Behavioral Scientist, 37, 257-261.

Dolan, K. (2005). Do Women candidates play to gender stereotypes? Do men candidates play to women? Candidate sex and issues priorities on campaign websites, Political Research Quarterly, 58, 31-44.

Dorsey, M., Green, B. (1997). Spinning the web. Campaign & Elections, 18, 62-65.

Downing, J. (1989). Computers for political change: Peacenet and public data access. Journal of Communication, 39, 154-162.

Dulio, D. A., Goff, D. L., & Thurber, J. A. (1999). Untangled web: Internet use during the 1998 election. PS: Political Science and Politics, 32, 53-58.

Dutton, W. H., Elberse, A., & Hale, M. (1999). A case study of a Netizen's guide to election. Communications of the ACM, 42, 49-54

Ehrenhalt, A. (1985). Technology, strategy bring new campaign era. Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 43, 2559-2565.

Eishtain, J. B. (1982). Democracy and the QUBE tube. The Nation, ,108-110.

Endres, D., & Warnick, B. (2004). Text-based interactivity in candidate campaign Web sites: A case study from the 2002 elections. Western Journal of Communication, 68, 322-342.

Endres, D., & Warnick, B. (2002). Virtual interactivity: Secondary orality in web-based political campaigns. Unpublished manuscript, University of Washington.

Epstein, E. (1996). Election '96 Internet style. PC World, 14, 174+.

Faris, D. M. (2008). The web, the cell phone and the Mubarak death crisis of 2007. Politics and Technology Review, 1, 51-57.

Faucheux, R. (1998). How campaigns are using the Internet: An exclusive Nationwide survey. Campaign & Elections, 19, 22-25.

Faucheux, R. (1994, August). Versatile videos. Campaigns & Elections, 15, 34-36.

Field, L., & Wilcox, N. (2008). Drafting an American hero. Politics and Technology Review, 1, 5-10.

Feld, K. G. (2001, October). Online polling and survey research. Campaigns & Elections, 22, 41-43.

Fisher, B., Margolis, M., & Resnick, D. (1996). Breaking ground on the virtual frontier: Surveying civic life on the Internet. American Sociologist, 11-29.

Fisher, B., Margolis, M., & Resnick, D. (1996). Surveying the Internet: Democratic theory and civic life in cyberspace. Southeastern Political Review, 24, 399-429.

Foot, K. A., & Schneider, S. M. (2006). Web campaigning (Acting with technology). Boston, MA: MIT Press.

Foot, K. A., & Schneider, S. M. (2002). Online action in campaign 2000: An exploratory analysis of the U.S. political web sphere. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 46, 222-244.

Foot, K. A., & Schneider, S. M. (Eds.) (2002, November 27). Online Campaigning in the 2002 U.S. Electoral Web Sphere. http://politicalweb.info/publications/2002WorkingPaper.pdf

Foot, K. A., schneider, S. M, Dougherty, M., Xenos, M., & Larsen, E. (2003). Analyzing linking practices: Candidate sites in the 2002 UL electoral web space. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication. http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol8/issue4/foot.html

Foust, C R. (2008). Aesthetics a weapons in the "War of Ideas:" Exploring the digital and typographic in American conservative web sites. Southern Communication Journal, 73, 122-142.

Frenkel, K. (1989). Computing as a political force. Personal Computing (Oct), 99-106.

Frenkel, K. (1989). the new breed of campaign manager. Personal Computing (Oct), 198-210.

Gaines, B. J., & Mondak, J. J. (2008, April). Typing together? Clusting of idelogical types in outline social networks. Paper presented at Poltiics: Web 2.0, London, UK.

Garramone, G. M., Harris, A. C., & Anderson, R. (1986). Uses of political computer bulletin boards. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 30, 325-339.

Garramone, G. M,. Harris, A. C., & Rizante, G. (1986). Predictors of motivation to use computer-mediated political communicant systems. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 30, 445-457.

Gastil, J. (2000). Is face-to-face citizen deliberation a luxury or a necessity? Political Communication, 17, 357-361.

Glass, A. J. (1996). On-line elections: The internetís impact on the political process. The Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 1, 140-146.

Gershon , S. A. (2008). Communicating female and minority interests online: A study of Web site issue discussion among female, Latino, and African American Members of Congress. International Journal of Press/Politics, 13, 120-140.

Getter, R. W., & Titus, J. E. (1989). Voter registration tapes: mining for new votes, new voters, and new money. In L. J. Sabato (Ed.), Campaigns and elections: A reader in modern American politics (pp. 82-87). Boston: Scott Foresman.

Graber, D. A., Bimber, B, Bennett, W. L., Davis, R., & Norris, P. (2004). The Internet and politics: Emerging perspectives. In H. Nissenbam & M. E. Price (Eds.), Academy and the InternetI (pp. 90-119). New York: Peter Lang.

Graff, S. (1992, July). High tech tools for campaigners [computers]. Campaign Magazine, 6, 26-29.

Griffin, M. (2007). Exposing images on the Web: A new wild card in political discourse. Conference Papers -- International Communication Association; Annual Meeting.

Griffin, M. (2007). Exposing images on the web: A new wild card in political discourse. Paper presented at Annual Meeting of the International Communication Association.

Groper, R. (1996). Electronic mail and the reinvigoration of American democracy, Social Science Computer Review, 14, 157-168.

Gulati, G. J. (2004). Members of congress and the presentation of self on the World Wide Web. Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 9, 22-40.

Gyotae, K., Kaid, L. L., & Pfau, M. (2003). The impact of web site campaigning on traditional news media and public information processing. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 80, 528-

Haas, T. (2005). From “pubic journalism” to the “public’s journalism”? Rhetoric and reality in the discourse on weblogs. Journalism Studies , 6, 387-396.

Hacker, K. L. (1996). Missing links in the evolution of electronic democratization. Media Culture & Society, 18, 213-232.

Hacker, K. L. (1996). Virtual democracy: A crtitique of the Clinton administratin citizen-White House eelctronic mail system. In R. E. Denton, and R. L. Holloway (Eds.). The Clinton presidency: Images, issues, and communication strategies (pp. 43-76) . Westport, CT: Praeger.

Hacker, K. L., Lowl, L, Scott, M., & Steiner, R. (1996). Uses of computer-mediated political communication in the 1992 presidential campaign: A content analysis of the Bush, Clinton and Perot computer lists. Communication Research Reports, 13, 138-146.

Hacker, K. L., & Todino, M. A. (1996). Virtual democracy at the Clinton White House: An experiment in electronic democratization. Electronic Journal of Communication, [On-line serial] 6(2). Available http://ww.cios.org/getfile/Hacker_V6N296.

Hacker, K. L., & van Dijk (2000). Virtual democracy: Issues of theory and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Hall, M. (1997). One-on-one politics in cyberspace. Media Studies Journal, 1997.

Hanigan, J., Garrett, K., & Resnick, P. (2004). The Internet and democratic debate. PEW Internet and American Life Project. http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Political_Info_Report.pdf

Hansen, G. J. & Benoit, W. L. (2005). Presidential campaigning on the web: The influence of candidate world wide web sites in the 2000 general election. Southern Communication Journal, 70,  219-230.

Harler, C. (1996). How politician face off in cyberspace. Communication News, 33, 22-23.

Harrison, T., & Falvey, L. (2000). Democracy and new communication technologies. Communication Yearbook, 25, 1-43.

Hart, R. P. (1985). Systematic analysis of political discourse. In K. R. Sanders, L. L. Kaid, & D. Nimmo (Eds.), Political communication yearbook- 1984 (pp. 97-134). Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.

Hildreth, A., Murray, L. A., & Strachan, J. C. (2005). The limitations of e-democracy. In M. S. McKinney, L. L. Kaid, D. G. Bystrom,& D. B. Carlin (Eds.) Communicating politics: Engaging the public in democratic life (pp. 201-208). New York: Peter Lang.

Hill, K. A., & Hughes, J. E. (1998). Cyberpolitics: Citizen activism in the age of the Internet. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Hill, K. A., & Hughes, J. E. (1997). Computer-mediated political communication: The USENET and political communication. Political Communication, 14, 3-27.

Hjelm, S. (2000). Building an interactive web: A survey of official political campaign web sties from the 2000 election. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Wake Forest University.

Holmberg, C. B. (1984). Stray the course: Technology's impact upon the representative-elector artifact. Communication Quarterly, 32, 84-90.

Holmes, D. (1998). Virtual politics: Identity and community in cyberspace. Thousand Oaks, CA: Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Hull, C. C. (2006). Online organizatin: Dean, Kerry, and the Internet politicking in the 2004 Iowa caucus. In A. P. Williams and J. C. Tedesco. The Internet election: Perspectives on the web in campaign 2004 (pp.57-82). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishing.

Hume, E. (1996). The new paradigm of news. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 456, 141-153.

Institute for Politics Democracy and the Internet (2002). Online Campaigning 2002: A Primer. Washington D.C.: The George Washington University. http://www.ipdi.org/UploadedFiles/onlinecampaigning2002.pdf

Ireland, E., & Tajitsu, P. (2001). Winning campaigns online (2nd Ed.). Nash, Science Writers Press

Iyengar, S., Hahn, K., & Prior, M. (2001). Has technology made attention to political campaigns more selective? An experimental study of the 2000 presidential campaign. http://pcl.stanford.edu/common/docs/research/iyengar/2001/selatt.pdf

Jacques, W. W., & Ratzan, S. C. (1997). The Internetís world wide web and political accountability: New media coverage of the 1996 presidential debates. American Behavioral Scientist, 40, 1226-1237.

Jagoda, K. A. B. (Ed.) (2005). Crossing the river: The coming of age of the tnternet in politics and advocacy. Philadelphia, PA: Xlibris.

Jenkins, A., Nikolaev, A., & Porpora, D. V. (2012). Moral reasoning and the online debate about Iraq. Political Communication, 29, 44–63.

Jankowski, N. W., & van Selm, M. (2008). Internet-based political comunication research: Illustrations, challenges & innovations. Javnost-The Public, 15, 5-16.

Jensen, D. (1989). Computers, control, and communication: How 30,000 volunteers beat the California gun initiative. In L. J. Sabato (Ed.), Campaigns and elections: A reader in modern American politics (pp.173-190). Boston: Scott Foresman.

John, J. A. (1994). How technology has changed modern campaigns. In G. H. Stempel (Ed.), The practice of political communication (pp. 90-99). Englewood Cliffs: NJ: Prentice Hall.

Johnson, D. W. (2004). Congress online: Bridging the gap between citizens and their representatives. New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.

Johnson, T. J., Braima, M. A. M., & Sothirajah, J. (1999). Doing the traditional media sidestep: Comparing the effects of the Internet and other nontraditional media with traditional media in the 1996 presidential campaign. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 76, 99-123.

Johnson, T. J., & Kaye, B. K. (2003). A boost or bust for democracy: How the Web influenced political attitudes and behaviors in the 1996 and 2000 presidential elections. Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 8, 9-34.

Johnson, T. J., & Kaye, B. K. (1998). A vehicle for engagement or a haven for the disaffected: Internet use, political alienation, and voter participation. In T. J. Johnson, C. E. Hayes, & S. P. Hayes (Eds.), Engaging the public: How government and the media can reinvigorate American democracy (pp.123-135). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Jones, C. A. (2006). Campaign finance reform and the Internet: Regulating web message in the 2004 election and beyond. In A. P. Williams and J. C. Tedesco. The Internet election: Perspectives on the web in campaign 2004 (pp.5-20). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishing.

Jones, S. G. (1998). Cybersociety 2.0: Revisiting computer-mediated communication and community. Sage.

Jordan, J. E. (1990). Advocacy communications by telephone: How to use the phone for grassroots lobbying. Campaign Magazine, 4, 24.

Kamarck, E. C. (1999). Campaigning on the Internet in the elections of 1998. In E. C. Kamarck & J. S. Nye, Jr. (Eds.), Democracy.com?: Governance in the a network world (pp. 99-123). Hollis, NH: Hollis.

Kang, S., & Gearhart, S. (2010) E-goernment and civic engagement: How is citizen' use of city web sites releated with civid involvement and political behavior? Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 54, 443-462.

Kaid, L. L. (2003). Effects of political information in the 2000 presidential campaign: Comparing traditional television and internet exposure. American Behavioral scientist, 46, 677-691.

Kaid, L. L, (2002). Political advertising and information seeking: Comparing exposure via traditional and Internet channels. Journal of Advertising, 31, 27-35.

Kaid, L. L. (2001). Improving voter information: Comparing traditional versus Internet sources. Political Advertising Research Reports, 6, 1-4 (University of Oklahoma)

Kaid, L. L., & Bystrom, D. (Eds.) (1998). The electronic election: Perspectives on the 1996 campaign communication. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.

Kaid, L. L., & Postelnicu, M. (2005). Political advertising in the 2004 election: Comparison of traditional
television and internet messages, American Behavioral Scientist, 49. 265-278

Kamarck, E. (2002). Political Campaigning on the Internet: Business as Usual? In E. Kamarck and J. Nye (Eds.), Governance.Com (pp. 81-103). Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press.

Karpf, D. (2008). Measring influence in the political blogosphere: who's winning and how can we tell? Politics and Technology Review, 1, 33-41.

Katz, E. (1996). And deliver us from segmentation. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 456, 22-33.

Katz, J. E. (2007). Mobile media and communication: Some important questions. Communication Monographs, 74, 389-394.

Kaye, B. K., & Johnson, T. J. (2006). the age of reasons: Motives for using different components of the Internet for political information. In A. P. Williams and J. C. Tedesco. The Internet election: Perspectives on the web in campaign 2004 (pp. 147-167). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishing.

Kaye, B., & Johnson, T. (2003). From here to obscurity?: Media substitution theory and traditional media in an on-line world. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 54, 260-273.

Kaye, B., & Johnson, T. (2002). Online and in the know: Uses and Gratifications of the web for political information. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 46, 54-71.

Kaye, K. ((2009). Campigan '08: A turning pont for digital media. Self published (information: lawyer@joemurphy.com). (Web Ads)

Keith, W. (2002). Democratic revival and the promise of cyberspace: Lessons from the forum movement. Rhetoric and Public Affairs, 5, 311-326.

Kellner, A. (2008). Scandal and the possible emergence of a fifth establishment: The ifluece of partisan blogs and the mainstream medai in political scandal coverage. Politics and Technology Review, 1, 61-63, 66-67.

Kenski, K., & Stroud, N. J. (2006). Connections between Internet use and political efficacy, knowledge, and particpation. Journal of Broadcasting & electronic Meida, 50, 173-192.

Keren, M. (2006). Blogosphere: The new political arena. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield

Kern, M. (2001). Disadvantage Al Gore in election 2000. American Behavioral Scientist, 44, 2125-2139. [examines Convention web stories]

Kern, M. (1997). Social capital and citizen interpretation of political ads, news, and web site information in the 1996 presidential election. American Behavioral Scientist, 40, 1238-1249.

Kern, M., Just, M., Crigler, A., & Xie, H. (2000). Using the Internet in political campaigns: Campaign evidence from interactive interviews with novice users. In C. De Landtsheer & O. Feldman (Eds.), Beyond speech and symbols: Explorations in the rhetoric of politicians and the media. (pp. 192-208). Westport, CT: Praeger.

Kielich, C. (1988). Change that dial: You can often reach more voting viewers for less money with cable TV. Campaigns and Elections, 9, 71.

Kkotz, R. (2001). Internet politics: A survey of practices. In R. P. Hart & D. R. Shaw (Eds.), Communication in U.S. Elections: New Agendas (pp. 185-201). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Pub.

Klien, S. A. (2004) . Meet the candidate videos: Analying presidential primary campaign videocassettes. Southern Communication Journal, 70, 88-89.

Klinenbert, E., & Perrin, A. (2000). Symbolic politics in the information age: The 1996 Republican presidential campaigns in cyberspace. Information, Communication, & Society, 3, 17-38.

Klotz, R. (1998). Virtual criticism: Negative advertising on the Internet in the 1996 senate races. Political Communication, 15, 347-365.

Klotz, R. (1997). Positive spin: Senate campaigning on the web. PS: Political Science & Politics, 30, 482-486..

Klotz, R.; & Broome, A. (1998). Discussion of Women's Issues in the 1996 Internet Campaign. Women & Politics, 1998, 19, 67-87.

Koeppel, D. (1992). The high-tech election. Adweek's Marketing Week, 33, 18-21.

Ku, G., Kaid, L. L., & Pfau, M. (2003). The impact of web sins campaigning on traditional news media and public information processing, Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 80, 528-548.

Larson, S., & Paystrup, P. (2005). The Internet and democracy: John McCain's new approach to politicking. In M. S. McKinney, L. L. Kaid, D. G. Bystrom,& D. B. Carlin (Eds.) Communicating politics: Engaging the public in democratic life (pp. 175-188). New York: Peter Lang.

Lawson-Borders, G., & Kirk, R. (2005). Blogs in campaign communication. American Behavioril Scientist, 49, 548-559.

Lipinski, D., & Neddernriep, G. (2004). Using "new" media to get "old" media coverage: How members of congress utilize their web sites to court journalists. Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 9, 7-21.

London, S. Electronic Democracy http://www.scottlondon.com/reports/bibl.html

Lugones, R. (2008). No time, no emails, no problem: Translating American online strategies into a successful Latin American campaign. Politics and Technology Review, 1, 29-30.

Luntz, F. I. (1988). Candidates, consultants & campaigns. New York: Basil Blackwell.

Lytel, D. (2002). The wire next time: Rethinking the Internet's place in politics. Campaign and Elections, 23, 56-57

Mancini. P., Swanson, D. L. (1996). Politics, media, and modern democracy: Introduction. In D. I. Swanson & P. Mancini (Eds.) Politics, media, and modern democracy (pp. 1-28). Westport, CT: Praeger.

MacDougall, R. (2005). Identity, electronic ethos, and blogs: A technologic analysis of symbolic exchange on the new news medium. American Behavioral Scientist, 49, 575-599.

Margolia, M., & Resnick, D. (2000). Politics as usual: The cyberspace "revolution." Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Margolis, M., Resnick, D., & Tu, C. (1997). Campaigning on the Internet: Parties and candidates on the World Wide Web in the 1996 primary season. The Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 2, 59-78.

Margolis, M., Resnick, D., & Wolfe, J. D. (1999). Party competition on the Internet in the United States and Britain. The Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 4, 24-27.

Maxwell, B. (2000). How to track politics on Internet. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press.

McMillian, S. J. (2000). The microscope and the moving target: The challenge of applying content analysis to the World Wide Web. Journalism Quarterly, 77, 80-98.

Meadow, R. G. (1991, May). New campaign technologies: How will the videocassette recorder and cable affect visual campaign communication in the 1990's. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association. Chicago, IL.

Meadow, R. G. (1986). The electronic machine: New technologies in political campaigns. Election politics, 3, 26-31.

Meadow, R. G. (1985). Political campaigns, new technology, and political competition. In R. G. Meadow (Ed.), New communication technologies in politics (pp. 5-16). Washington, DC: The Washington Program of the Annenberg School of Communication.

Media Studies Center (1996). Cybercampaigns preach to the choir. In The media and campaign 96 briefings. Washington, DC: Media Studies Center.

McChesney, R. W. (2000). Rich media, poor democracy: Communication politics in dubious times. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press.

McGillicuddy, A. & Robinson, V. L. (1989). Running for mayor with a micro: How computer volunteer training paid off in Charlotte. In L. J. Sabato (Ed.), Campaigns and elections: A reader in modern American politics (pp. 165-172). Boston: Scott Foresman.

McKeown, C. A., & Plowman, K. D. (1999). Reaching publics on the Web during the 1996 presidential campaign. Journal of Public Relations Research, 11, 321-347.

Mickunas, G., & Pilotta, J. (Eds.) (1998). Technocracy vs. democracy: Issues in the politics of communication. Hampton Press.

Misciagno, P. A. (1996). Rethinking the mythic presidency. Political Communication, 13, 329-344.

Muhlberger, P. (2005). Human agency and the revitalization of the public sphere. Political Communication, 22, 163-178.

Muir, J. K. (2008). Closing the gap: Media, politics, and citizen participation. Harvard International Review, 30, 54-57. Cambridge, MA.

Myers, D. D. (1993). New technology and the 1992 Clinton presidential campaign. American Behavioral Scientist, 37, 181-187.

Newman, W. R. (1998). The global impact of new technologies. In D. Graber, D. McQuail, P. Norris (Eds.), The politics of news: The news of politics (pp. 238-250). Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press.

Neuman, W. R. (1996). Political communications infrastructure. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 456, 9-21.

Niven, D., & Zilber, J. (2001). Do women and men in congress cultivate different images? Evidence from congressional web sites. Political Communication, 18, 395-405.

Nicholson, J. (2000) The rise of the "e-precinct". Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 5, 78-81.

Norris, P. (2003). Preaching to the converted? Pluralism, participation and party websites. Party Politics, 9, 21-45.

Norris, P. (2002). The bridging and bonding role of online communities. Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 7, 3-13.

Norris, P, & Jones, D. (1998). Virtual democracy (Editorial). The Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 3, 1-4.

Oblak, T. (2003). Boundaries of interactive public engagement: Political institutions and citizens in new political platforms. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 8. http://www.ascusc.org/jcmc/vol8/issue3/oblak.html

O'Sullivan, P. B. (1995). Computer networks and political participation: Santa Monica's teledemocracy project. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 23, 93-107.

Owen, D. & Davis, R. (2008). United State: Internet and Elections. In , S. Ward, , D. Owen, R. Davis, & D. Taras. (Eds.) (2008). Making a difference: A comparative view of the role of the Internet in election politics (pp. 75-92). New York, NY: Lexington Books.

Owen, D., Davids, R., & Strickler, V. J. (1999). Congress and the Internet. Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 2, 10-29.

Paley, W. C., & Moffett, S. (1984). The new electronic media -- instant action and reaction. Campaign and Elections, , 4-12.

Papacharissi, Z. (2004). Democracy online: civility, politeness, and the democratic potential of online political discussion groups. New Media and Society, 6, .

Park, H. S., & Choi, S. M. (2002). Focus group interviews: The Internet as a political campaign medium. Public Relations Quarterly. 47, 36-42.

Parmelle, J. H. (2002). Meet the candidate videos: Analyzing presidential primary campaign videocassettes. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Paquin, T. (1999). Software for political campaigns. In D. D. Perlmutter (Ed.), The Manship School guide to political communication (pp. 253-260). Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press.

Perkins, J. (1999). The internet and campaign '98. In D. D. Perlmutter (Ed.), The Manship School guide to political communication (pp. 241-248). Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press.

Perlmutter, D. D. (2008). Political blogging and campaign 2008: A roundtable, International Journal of Press/Politics, 13, 160-170.

Perry, R. (1984). Hidden power: The programming of the president. New York: Beaufort Books.

Pew Research Center for the People and the Press (1996). One in ten voters online for campaign '96. Washington, DC: Author.

Postelnicu, M., martin, J. D., & Landreville, K. D. (2006). The role of campaign web sites in promoting candidates and attracting campaign resources. In A. P. Williams and J. C. Tedesco. The Internet election: Perspectives on the web in campaign 2004 (pp. 99-110). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishing.

Puopolo, S. T. (2001). The web and U.S. Senatorial campaign 2000. American Behavioral Scientist, 44, 2030-2047.

Quinlin, S. E. (1992). Campaigns and cable. C-SPAN Quarterly, 1, 6-11.

Raddock, S. (2001, October). Cable TV: Campaign vehicle of choice. Campaigns and Elections, 22, 46-47.

Rainie, L., Cornfield, M., & Horrigan, J. (March 2005). The Internet and campaign 2004. Pew Internet & American Life Project http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_2004_Campaign.pdf

Rash, W. (1997). Politics on the nets: Wiring the political process. New York: W. H. Freeman.

Reagan, J., Pinkleton, B., Chen, C., & Aaronson, D. (1995). How do technologies relate to the repertoire of information sources? Telematics and Informatics, 12, 21-17.

Reavy, M. M. (1999). Evaluating political websites. In D. D. Perlmutter (Ed.), The Manship School guide to political communication (pp. 249-252). Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press.

Rebooting America: Ideas for redesigning Democracy for the Internet age (2008). Personal Democracy Press.

Reed, L. (1999). Online campaigning. In D. D. Perlmutter (Ed.), The Manship School guide to political communication (pp. 233-240). Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press.

Rinker, B. (1992). High-tech election, high-content voters. Adweek's Marketing Week, 33, 16. (informercials and videocassettes as political advertising).

Roberts, S. V. (1986, Nov.2). Politicking goes high-tech. The New York Times Magazine, , 38-2.

Rogerson, K. S. (2005). Lots of questions, a few good answers: A look at current research on the Internet and politics. Political Communication, 22, I237-252.

Rogerson, K. S., & Thomas, G. D. (1998). Internet regulation process model: The effect of societies, communities, and government. Political Communication, 15, 427-444.

Rosenblatt, A. J. (1999) On-line polling: Methodological limitations and implications for electronic democracy. Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 2, 30-44.

Roy, S., & Edmonds, T. (1984). The computer-assisted media buy: A primer for campaign managers. Campaigns and Elections, , 38-42.

Rucinski D. (1991). The centrality of reciprocity to communication and democracy. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 8, 184-194.

Sakkas, L. (1993). Politics on the Internet. Interpersonal computing technology: An electronic Journal for the 21st Century, 1, SAKKASIPCTV1N1.

Scammell, M. (2000). The Internet and civic engagement: The age of the citizen-consumer. Political Communication, 17, 351-355.

Scheufele, D. A., & Nisbet, M. C. (2002). Being a citizen online: New opportunities and dead ends. Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 7, 55-75.

Schnieder, S. M (1996). Creating a democratic public sphere through political discussion: A case study of abortion conversation on the Internet. Social Science Computer Review, 14, 373-393.

Schnieder, S. M., & Foot, K. A. (2006). Web campaigning by U.S. presiential primary candidates in 2000 and 2004. In A. P. Williams and J. C. Tedesco. The Internet election: Perspectives on the web in campaign 2004 (pp.21-36). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishing.

Schram, S. C. (1991). The post-modern presidency and the grammar of electronic electioneering. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 8, 210-216.

Schudson, M. (1997). Why conversation is not the soul of democracy. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 14, 297-309.

Selnow, G. W. (1998). Electronic whistle-stops: The impact of the Internet on American politics. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Selnow, G. W. (1993). High-tech campaigns: Computer technology in political communication. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Selnow, G. W. (1991). Polls and computer technologies: Ethical considerations. In R. E. Denton (Ed.), Ethical dimensions of political communication (pp. 171-197). Westport, CT: Praeger.

Shah, D. V., Kwak, N., & Holbert, R. L. (2001). "Connecting" and "disconnecting" with civic life: Patterns of Internet use and the production of social capital. Political Communication, 18, 141-162.

Shanahan-Walsh, A. (1992, January). Politics has it all: Sex, lies and now -- VIDEO TAPE! Campaign Magazine, 6, 16.

Shane, P. M (Ed.) (2004). Democracy online: the prospects for political renewal thorough the Internet. New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.

Shostak, A. B. (1988). How to invigorate bottom-up politics. In J. Swerdlow (Ed). Media technology and the vote: A source book (p.132-137). Washington, DC: The Annenberg Washington Program.

Sillaman, L. (2000). The digital campaign trail: Candidate images on campaign Websites. Unpublished master's thesis, Annenberg School of Communication, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Singer, J. B., & Gonzalez-Velez, M. (2003). Envisioning the caucus community: Online newspaper editors conceptualize their political role. Political Communication, 20, 433-452.

Smith, R. (1987). New technologies in campaigns. In L. P. Devlin (Ed.), Political persuasion in presidential campaigns (pp. 17-27). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.

Sobieraj, S., & Berry, J. M. (2011). From incivility to outrage: Political discourse in blogs, talk radio, and cable news. Political Communication, 28, 19–41.

Souley, B., & Wicks, R. H. (2005). Tracking the 2004 presidential campaign web sites: Similarities and differences. American Behavioral Scientist, 49, 535-547.

Sparks, C. (Ed.). (1996). Electronic democracy [Special Issue]. Media, Culture & Society, 18.

Special technology issue --computers, satellites, scanners, video, cable, etc. (1989, March/April). Campaigns and Elections, 9.

Spinelli, M. (2000). Democratic rhetoric and emergent media: The marketing of participatory community on radio and the Internet. International Journal of Cultural Studies, 3, 268-278.

Stokes, A. Q. (2006). Discrediting Teresa: Wounded by whispers on the web. In A. P. Williams and J. C. Tedesco. The Internet election: Perspectives on the web in campaign 2004 (pp. 169-185). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishing.

Stokes, A. Q. (2005). Teresa would be an unacceptable first lady: Internet whispering campaigns in a close election. In A. P. Williams, and J. C. Tedesco (Eds.) The Internet election: Perspectives on the web in campaign 2004. Boulder, CO: Rowman & Littlefield.

Stromer-Galley, J. (2000). On-line interaction and why candidates avoid it. Journal of Communication, 50, 111-132.

Sromer-Galley, J., & Baker, A. B. (2006). Joy and sorrow of interactivity on the campiagn trail: Bogs in the primary campaign of Howard Dean. In A. P. Williams and J. C. Tedesco. The Internet election: Perspectives on the web in campaign 2004 (pp. 111-131). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishing.

Stromer-Galley, J., & Foot, K. A. (2002). Citizen perceptions of online interactivity and implications for political campaign communication. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 8. http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol8/issue1/stromerandfoot.html

Sulkin, T., Moriarty, C. M., & Hefner, V. (2007). Congressional candidates' issue agendas on- and off-line. Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 12, 63-79.

Sundar, S. S., Kalyanaraman, S., & Brown, J. (2003). Explicating Web site interactivity: Impression formation effects in political campaign sites. Communication Research, 30, 30-59.

Sussman, G. (1997). Communication and technology, and politics in the information age. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Swanson, D. L. (2000). The homologous evolution of political communication and civic engagement: Good news, bad news, and no news. Political Communication, 17, 409-414.

Swerdlow, J. L. (Ed.) (1988). Media technology and the vote: A source book. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Teachout, Z., Streeter, T. Armstrong, J. & Biddle, L. (2008). Mousepads, shoe leather, and hope: Lessons from the Howard Dean campaign for the future of Internet politics. Paradigm Press.

Tedesco, J. C.(2006). Web intreractivity and young adult political efficacy. In A. P. Williams and J. C. Tedesco. The Internet election: Perspectives on the web in campaign 2004 (pp. 187-202). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishing.

Tedesco, J. C. (2004). Changing the channel: Use of the Internet for communicating about politics. In L. L. Kaid (Ed.), Handbook of political communication research (pp. 507-532). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publisher.

Tedesco, J. C., Miller, J. L., & Spiker, J. A. (1999). Presidential campaigning on the information superhighway: An exploration of content and form. In L. L. Kaid and Bystrom, D. G. (Eds.), The electronic election: Perspectives on the 1996 campaign communication (pp. 51-63). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Telephones as strategic tools (forum) (1997, September). Campaign and Elections, 18, 18-24.

Tewksbury, D. (2006). Exposure tothe newer media in a presidential primary campaign. Political Communication, 23, 313-332.

Thompson, M. (2004) Political advertising: All's fair in the 'Wild West' aura of the net. Online Journalism Review, USC Annenberg. http://ojr.org/ojr/law/1094004108.php

Thompson, R. (1986). Computerized video wizardry: Winning elections at the studio control board. Campaigns and Elections, , 31-34.

Tobe, F. (1984). New techniques in computerized voter contact. Campaigns and Elections, , 56-64.

Tomlinson, J. E. (2005). Campaigning in cyberspace: Lessons for political communication in the "net" century. In M. S. McKinney, L. L. Kaid, D. G. Bystrom,& D. B. Carlin (Eds.) Communicating politics: Engaging the public in democratic life (pp. 189-199). New York: Peter Lang.

Tomlinson, J. E. (2003). Organizing an online campaign: The legacy of McCain2000.com. In L. L Kaid, J. C. Tedesco, D. G. Bystrom, & M. S. McKinney (Eds.) The millennium election: Communication in the 2000 campaign (pp. 179-188) . New York: Rowman & Littlefield.

Toulouse, C., & Luke, T. W. (Eds.) (1998). The politics of cyberspace. New York, NY: Routledge.

Trammell, K. D. (2006). The blogging of the president. In A. P. Williams and J. C. Tedesco. The Internet election: Perspectives on the web in campaign 2004 (pp. 133-146). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishing.

Trammell, K. D., Williams, A. P., Postelnicu, M., & Landreville, K. D. (2006). Evolution of online campaigning: Increasing interactivity in candidate web sites and blogs through text and technical features. Mass Communication & Society, 9, 21-44.

Trufelman, L. (1988). Audio-visual targeting through cable television. In J. Swerdlow (Ed). Media technology and the vote: A source book (p.26-28). Washington, DC: The Annenberg Washington Program.

Vaccari, C. (2010). “Technology Is a Commodity”: The Internet in the 2008 United States presidential election. Journal of Information Technology & Politics, 7, 318–339.

Vaccari, C. (2008). From the air to the ground: the internet in the 2004 US presidential campaign. New Media & Society, 10, 647-665.

Valentine, J. (2008). Uncreative commons? Politics and Technology Review, 1, 25-28.

Valentino, N. A., Hutchings, V. L. & Williams, D. (2004). The impact of political advertising on knowledge, internet information seeking, and candidate preference. Journal of Communication, 54, 337-354.

Vergeer, M., & Hermans, L. (2008). Analysing online political discussion: Methodological considerations. Javnost-The Public, 15, 37-55.

The virtual trail: Political journalism on the net. Institute of Politics Democracy & the Internet. George Washington School of Campaign Management. www.ipdi.org

Wallsten, K (2010. “Yes We Can”: How online viewership, blog discussion, campaign statements, and mainstream media coverage produced a viral video phenomenon. Journal of Information Technology & Politics, 7, 163–181.

Ward, S., Owen, D., Davis, R., & Taras, D. (Eds.) (2008). Making a difference: A comparative view of the role of the Internet in election politics. New York, NY: Lexington Books.

Warnick, B. (2007). Rhetoric online: Persuasion and politics on the World Wide Web. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishers.

Warnick, B. (2002). Critical literacy in a digital age: Technology, rhetoric and the public interest. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [Chapter 3: Campaign 2000]

Warnick, B. (2001). Critical literacy in a digital era: Technology, rhetoric, and the public sphere. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Warnick, B. (1998). Appearance or reality? Political parody on the Web in campaign '96. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 15, 306-324.

Warnick, B., Xenos, M., Endres, D., and Gastil, J. (2005). Effects of campaign-to-user and text-based interactivity in political candidate campaign web sites. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 10, http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol10/issue3/warnick.html

Welch, E. W., & Fulla, S. (2005). Virtual interactivity between government and citizens: The Chicago police department's citizen ICAM application demonstration case. Political Communication, 22, 215-236.

Wenk, E. (1999). The double helix: Technology and democracy in the American future. Westport, CT: Ablex Publishing.

Wheeler, M. (1998). High-tech politics: the impact of information communication technologies. Convergence: The Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, 4, 42-58.

Whillock, R. K. (1998). Digital democracy: The '96 presidential campaign on-line. In R. E. Denton (Ed.) The 1996 presidential campaign: A communication perspective (pp. 179-197). Westport, CT: Praeger.

Whillock, R. K. (1997). Cyber-politics: The online strategies of í96. American Behavioral Scientist, 40, 1208-1225.

White, C. S. (1997). Citizen participation and the Internet: Prospects for civic deliberation in the information age. Social Studies, 88, 23-28.

Wicks, R. H., & Souley, B. (2003). Going negative: Candidate usage of Internet Web sites during the 2000 presidential campaign. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 80, 128-144.

Wicks, R. H., Souley, B., & Verser, R. M. (2003). Differences and similarities in use of campaign websites during the 2000 presidential election. In L. L Kaid, J. C. Tedesco, D. G. Bystrom, & M. S. McKinney (Eds.) The millennium election: Communication in the 2000 campaign (pp. 189-199) . New York: Rowman & Littlefield.

Wiese, D. R., & Groneck, B. E. (2005). Campaign 2004 developments in cyberpolitics. In R. E. Denton (Ed.), The 2004 presidential campaign: A communication perspective (pp. 217-329). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Pub.

Williams, A. P. (2005). The main frame: Assesssing the role of the Internet in the 2004 U.S. presidential contest. In R. E. Denton (Ed.), The 2004 presidential campaign: A communication perspective (pp. 241-254). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Pub.

Williams, A. P. (2006). Self-referential and opponent-based framing: Candidate e-mail stragegies in campaign 2004. In A. P. Williams and J. C. Tedesco. The Internet election: Perspectives on the web in campaign 2004 (pp. 83-98). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishing.

Williams, A. et al (2005). Blogging and hyperlinking: Use of the Web to enhance viability during the 2004 US campaign. Journalism Studies, 6. 177-186.

Williams, A. P., & Tedesco, J. C. (2006). The Internet election: Perspectives on the web in campaign 2004. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishing.

Williams, A. P., & Trammell, K. D. (2005). Candidate campaign e-mail messages in the presidential election 2004. American Behavioral Scientist, 49, 560-574.

Williams, C. B., & Gulati, G. J. (2008). The poltical impact of Facebook: Evidence from the 2006 midterm elections and the 2008 nomination contest. Politics and Technology Review, 1, 11-21.

Wimbush, C. (2008). Cyber-libertarians: The Internet unleased, a government challenged? Politics and Technology Review, 1, 45-47.

Windisch, U. (2008). Daily political communication and argumentation in direct democracy: Advocates and opponents of nuclear energy. Discourse & Society, 19, 85-98.

Winograd, M., & Hais, M. D. (2008). Millennial makeover: MySpace, YouTube & the future of American politics. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Wojcieszak, M. E., & Mutz, D. C. (2009). Online groups and political discourse: Do online discussion spaces facilitate exposure to political disagreement? Journal of Communication, 59, 40-56.

Wu, W., & Weaver, D. (1997). On-line democracy or on-line demagoguery? Public opinion "polls" on the Internet. Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 2, 71-86.

Xenos, M A., & Foot, K A. (2005). Politics as usual, or politics unusual? Position taking and dialogue on campaign websites in the 2002 U.S. Elections, Journal of Communication, 55, 169-185.

Yousif, R. O, & Alsamydai, M.J, 2012). The impact of the political promotion via Facebook on individuals' political orientations. International Journal of Business and Management, 7. 85-98.

Zappan, J. P., Gurak, L. J., Doheny-Farina, S. (1997). Rhetoric, community, and cyberspace. Rhetoric Review, 15, 1-19.

*

Return to Political Communication HomePage