Now disputation is for the
sake of making clear distinction between what is and
what is not.
It examines the reasons for there being order or disorder, it makes
clear where things are the same and where they are different, it makes
investigations into the correspondences that exist between names and
realities. weighs assets against liabilities or benefits against
injuries, and resolves uncertainties. and in so doing it searches out
the truth about the myriad creatures and seeks through analysis to
compare the multitudes of discourses.
One uses names to lift realities [up to our minds for examination], and
uses reasoned discourse to express one's ideas. One uses persuasive
discourse to put forth idea of causation (motivation). One accepts
things for examination by their general natures and puts them forward [for
examination by others] in the same way.
Do not condemn in others what you find in yourself, and do not demand of other what you yourself do not have.
Do not condemn in others what you find in yourself, and do not demand of others what you yourself do not have.
When something is qualified with the word "perhaps," it is because of
the lack of exhaustive evidence for it. When something is qualified
with the word "supposing," it is because at present that state of
affairs does not exist.
"Semblance" is the name for a law or rule for doing something. The thing of
which a semblance is made is the standard by reason of which
something is done. So if a semblance hits the bull's eye, then it
is correct. If it does not hit the bull's eye, then it is wrong. This
is what is meant by a [good] semblance.
Paraphrase: A mapping or model is made
to correspond to a deeper characteristic of nature. So what we are
ultimately trying to do is to connect the mapping or model with the
deeper characteristic of nature. Therefore when we make a mapping that
is on target, then it is correct; when we make a mapping that is not on
target, then it is incorrect.
on this passage, I think by shì and fēi Mo Zi means "what
and what is not the case." So these terms should apply
individual propositions. Rán and bù rán, on the
other hand, apply to compound sentences formed by the use of logical
terms such as "if... then...." }}
ways things are have their reasons. The way things are may be the same
the reasons for their being that way also being the same.
means "the way things are." The sentence says that there is a
reason for any
thing being the way it is, however, while two things may be or
look the same,
the reasons that they are the way they are need not be the same.
instance, two people are dead. One died of a real heart attack, but one
from a poison delivered by a clever
Now things are
such that people make statements about things that do happen and
the implications they postulate on that basis are held to be valid, or
people make statements about things that do happen but the implications
they postulate on that basis are held not to be valid, or the
statements they use involve cases that do not occur and the
implications they make about them are held to be valid.
•Commentary: Examples of these three
classes, shì ér rán, shì ér
bù rán, and bú shì er rán, are:
shì ér rán: "If the
north pole is cold, then food left outside at night will freeze."
Ordinary people will accept this statement.
shì ér bù rán: "If Al
Capone was a gangster, then Al Capone was human." Ordinary people will
not accept this statement. (They may believe that killing is bad but
execution is o.k.)
bú shì er rán: "If you do
not complete your education all the way through medical school, then
you will not become a physician." Ordinary people will accept this
are that way,
or people deny statements about them and actually they are that way, or
people affirm such propositions yet they are not that way.