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-a, Ah,

-a, sentence ending indicating some degree of presumption

Ai` Er° Lan´, Ireland

an¯, to be at peace

ba¯ tian¯ -le, This phrase stands as the predicate of its sentence.

Ba¯ Xi¯, Brazil

ba°, "object mover-upper" -- moves object before verb

-ba, a sentence-ending particle that softens a flat statement into a tentative declaration and softens a command into a suggestion.

Bai´ Yu°, Japanese surname, pronounced "Shirobane" in Japanese.

ba` -ba, dad, pop -- a familiar term of address and reference for one's own father

bai° xing`, one hundred + surnames = the ordinary people, common people

ban`, to handle some matter or perform some procedure, to manage

ban` fa°, to manage + method = way of managing something

bang¯, to help

bang¯ zhu`, to help + to aid = help, aid, assist

bao¯, to wrap in a sack or similar bundle

bei¯, a cup, a glass. This is short, here, for yi` bei¯, one cup.

ben°, root --> the recension-source of a text --> bound volume --> MW for books

ben° lai´, root + come (coming from) = basically, fundamentally; originally

bing` (1) moreover (2) (+ negative) double-plus don't, i.e., most definitely do not

bie´, bu´ yao` written as one character = don't!

bie´de, other

ben`, stupid

bo´ -bo, uncle (father's elder brother), fictive kinship attribution used as a term of respectful address or reference

bo´ mu°, aunt (wife of father's elder brother), fictive kinship attribution used as a term of respectful address or reference

bi°, as compared with

bu` an¯, not at peace, upset

bu´ bi`, not + required = there is no requirement to, one need not

bu´ da`, not very

bu´ zai`, not + located at = not at home

bu´ zai`, not + located at + change of status particle = not living anymore

bu` duo¯, not many, not much

bu° shi(`) AAA jiu` shi(`) BBB, if it isn't AAA then it's BBB

bu´ tai` hui`, not exceptionally adept at

bu´ tai` yi´ yang`, not extremely similar

bu´ de´ liao°, not + acquire + finish = no end of trouble, hopelessly bad

bu` gan°, not + to dare = I dare not

bu` hao° yi` -si, not + good + meaning + thought = to not feel right about something, not feel good about doing something, to be embarrassed.

bu` ting¯, to not listen, to deliberately ignore a verbal communication

bu´ yao`, don't

bu´ yong`, lit., "don't use," i.e., you need not, don't bother to, etc.

bu´ yao`, not + want, need = do not!

bu´ zi` zai`, not self possessed, ill at ease

cai´, only then. This word indicates a stringent requirement has to be met before something can happen.

chi¯ wan´, to eat + to finish = to finish eating

chu¯ -de chou°, (emit =) commit + ugly = faux pas

chu¯ lai´, exit + motion toward the speaker = to come out

chu¯ sheng¯, exit, emit + sound = to make a sound

chu¯ qu`, exit + motion from the speaker = to go out

chu¯ qu` chi¯ fan`, go out to eat

cha´, tea.

chang´, long

chang´ -chang, constantly, frequently.

che¯ zhan`, vehicle station, i.e., bus stop, railway station, cab stand, etc.

cheng´ wai`, city wall + outside = outside the city

chi¯ fan`, eat + cooked rice = to eat a meal

chi¯, to eat

chu¯ -ge zhu° yi`, to (put out =) come up with an idea

chu¯ lai´, exit + motion toward speaker = come out

chu¯ -le shi`, emit + did happen + event, here, hypothetical: if something should happen...

chu` li°, to handle some matter, to process (information, etc.)

chuan¯ huai`, to wear + bad, damaged = to wear out clothing

ci° di`, this + place = here, this vicinity, this place

cong´ lai´, from the beginning on down to now + neg = never

cong´ xiao°, from + small = from the time when I was a little child

da´ fei¯ suo° wen`, answer not what asked = give unresponsive answers

da° huai`, hit + bad = to damage

da° pu¯ ke` pai´, to play poker

dai` a belt, a leash; to bring along with oneself

da` jia¯, lit., the extended family, i.e., everybody, the group, the community

da° kai¯, strike + open = to open

dan` -shi, but

dan¯ xin¯, to bear a burden + heart = to be worried that

dang¯ shi´, at that time

di` san¯ hui`, the third "return to the storyteller," i.e., episode.

dai` lai´, to bring with oneself + motion toward speaker = to bring here

da°, to hit, to strike, to tap --> to send a telegraph message, to send a telephone message, to play certain ball games, to play cards

da° bao¯, hit + sack. HK expression for "doggie bag."

da` yu°, great, large + rain = a heavy rain

dao`, motion toward a destination

dao` -le, motion toward a destination + "indeed did it" particle = arrived

dao` chu(`), everywhere

XXX -de YYY --> YYY + relative pronoun + XXX

dui` bu` qi°, to face + not + start up doing something = unable to face, i.e., "sorry" or "excuse me"

dui` bu` qi°, to face + not + start up doing something = unable to face, i.e., "sorry" or "excuse me"

di` er` hui´, second episode

deng° che¯, to wait for a vehicle (bus, train, etc.)

di`, ordinalizer (makes "first," "second," etc.)

di` fang¯, land + earth = place

dian°, short for "yi` dian°," "yi` diar°," a little

dian° xin¯, (hits the) spot + heart/mind = dessert

dian` hua`, electric + talk = telephone message

die´ dao°, to slip + to invert, to spill = to trip and fall

-de, in sentence final: The sentence structure is: SUBJ (shi`) CLAUSE de (ren´). X is the one who ......

-de, in sentence final: The sentence structure is: SUBJ (shi`) CLAUSE de (ren´). X is the one who ......

-de, adverb marker

Dong¯ Feng¯, name of Mari's horse. The Japanese reading is "Toshikaze" even though that is not the usual way to read that compound in Japanese.

dong`, to move

dong` si°, freeze + die, to kill by freezing. This is a resultative compound.

dong¯ -xi, thing

dou¯, all

dui` -le, lit., "As of now, correct!" i.e., something like, "Now I've got it!" -- frequently used when one realizesone has overlooked doing something.

dang¯, to hold the position of, to assume the position of, to act in some official capacity, e.g., "dang¯ lao° shi¯," to hold the position of teacher (in a school).

dang¯ ran´, of course, naturally

da` xue´, university

XXX -de shi´ hou` = when XXX

dai` hui´, bring with oneself + return = to bring back, to take back

deng° wait

dui`, facing, corresponding --> to toward; correct

dong°, to understand (language, meaning, etc.)

duo¯ ban`, lit., more than one half, i.e., most of them

duo¯ -shao, X amount of --> any particular amount of, any appreciable amount of

duo¯ -le in a verb-final position means "much more VERB"

duo¯ nian´, many years

e`, "uh"

er° duo¯, ear

er´ -zi, son, sons

fa¯ xian`, throw off + right before one's eyes = to discover

fan´, "fire in head," annoying, irritating, burns me up

fan¯ kan`, flip through and read

fang´ jian¯, room (or, in this story, stall)

fang` zai`, release from hand + located at = put on

fang´ -zi, house

fan` ting¯, food + major room in house = dining room

fan° zheng`, flip side + first side = either way

fei¯ zhou¯, Africa

feng¯, a seal, a MW for letters

fu` qin¯, father (formal)

gai¯, short for ying¯ gai¯, ought to, should

gao¯ er° fu¯ qiu´, golf

gao¯ er° fu¯, golf

gao¯ ji´, high + rank = high ranking

gan° dao`, to hasten somewhere

gan° kuai`, "hurry up quick"

gang¯ lai´, just now + motion toward speaker = just arrived

gao¯, high, tall

gao` -su, to tell

ge¯, halberd, a surname

-ge , MW + some noun, equivalent to yi´ -ge (noun)

-ge ren´, MW + human being, equivalent to yi´ge ren´, a person

gei°, to give --> to

gei°, to give --> for

gen¯, to follow --> with, and; [said, etc.] to

gen¯ -zhe, following

geng`, even more

gao¯ xing`, elated, elatedly

gan° dong`, emotionally affected + to move = emotionay moved

gei°, give

gei´ wo°, to give to me, i.e., for me

gen¯ dao` nar° qu`, follow + motion toward destination + X place + motion not toward the speaker = follows wherever YYY goes

gong¯ chi°, meter (length of measure)

gong¯ ke`, schoolwork

gou° dog(s)

guan° ta¯, manage or pay attention to him --> actual meaning is just the opposite: Don't pay attention to him.

guan¯ -xi, close + link = connection --> to matter

guai¯, complaisant, obliging and agreeable

guan¯, to fasten, to close, fasten shut (the door, etc.)

gui°, ghost

gui`, expensive

gun` -zi, cane

-guo, marker indicating something actually happened -- unlike "le" it may be negated.

guo´ jia¯, nation, country. Here, "the country."

guo` de´, to pass + to attain = can pass --> does pass

guo`, to pass; sometimes = to pass or celebrate a holiday or festival

guo` nian´, to pass + year = to (pass =) celebrate the New Year festival

guo` -qu, to pass + motion not toward the speaker = to pass away, to die

hai´, still

hai´ -shi, still is the case that

hai´ hao°, still + good = fortunately, thank goodness, etc.

hai´ -zi, child, children

hou`, aft --> after

hao°, "good and ..." as in "Mom was good and ready to spank me."

hao° chi¯, good to eat

hao° xiang`, good, well + resemble = very much resembled, seemed

he¯ to drink.

he¯ jiu°, to drink alchoholic beverage

he´, to harmonize --> and, with (compared with)

he´, MW, a carton (of something)

hei¯, black, dark

Hei¯ Long´ Hui`, Black Dragon Society, a militia named after an earlier militaristic group

hen° hui`, very well able to

hen° kuai`, lit., very rapidly --> very quickly, soon

hen´ zao° jiu`, already at an early time

hen° pa` ren´ -de, [something] that greatly frightens people

heng`, Hmmmpf!

hong´, red

he´ qi` -de, in an affable way

huai` shi`, bad things

huang´, a family name. (Similar to the English family name Brown, perhaps.)

hui´, to return

hui´, a measure word for events

hui`, to know how to do something, to be apt at doing something

hui`, to be apt or likely to do something

hui´ dao` XXX, to return + motion toward a destination = return to XXX

hui´ lai´, to return + motion toward speaker = come back

hui´ qu`, to return + motion away from speaker = go back

huo° che¯, train.

hou` mian´, rear side, rear end

hou` mian´, rear gate, back gate

hou` lai´, aft + motion toward speaker = coming after, afterward

hou` bian(¯), aft + edge = back (edge, side, etc.) of

hou` mian(`), aft + surface = the rear, the back of something; behind

hou` -tou, aft + nominalizer = the rear, the back of something; behind

huo´ gai¯, "living ought to," i.e., Serves you right!

ji´ li`, auspicious

jin` dao`, to enter + motion toward a destination = entered into, entered upon

ji¯ hui(`), springs of action + come together = opportunity

jian`, MW for events and certain other nouns

jiao¯, to teach

jiao°zi, Chinese ravioli

jiao`, to call --> to order

jiao`, to call --> to bark, to cry out

jiao`, to call --> to bark

jiao`, to call --> to cause

jiao`, to call (somebody's name)

jiao`, to be called

ji`, to entrust (to the postal service, etc.), to mail

ji` bu` qing¯ -chu, record/remember + not + clear = unable to remember clearly

ji` lai´, to mail + motion toward the speaker = to send (to me)

jiang¯ jun¯, a general + military = general (of the army)

jie° shi`, to dissect + to dissipate = to explain something analytically

jie¯ -zhe, link + continuation of state marker = following that, the next thing that happened was...

jie`, borrow

jie`, lend

jin´ jin°, tight + tight = tightly

jin` dao`, enter + motion toward a destination = to enter

jin` qu`, enter + motion not toward speaker = enter, go in

jing¯ guo`, to go through + to pass over = to pass through or by some place

jing¯ yan`, to go through + to test = experience

jiu°, a long time

jiu`, this word contrasts with cai´. Cai´ means "only" and implies some kind of a struggle to get something done, or meeting some kind of stringent condition before something can be done. Jiu` is it's opposite, and is used when somethinghappens before the time you could reasonably hope to have it happen, something that's "easy as falling off a log," etc.

jiu` -shi, is exactly, is precisely (frequently used in forming definitions)

ji` de´, to remember + to acquire = to recall

ji°, X number of

ji° duan` lu`, X (1-10) + section + road = several legs of the journey

ji° fen¯ zhong¯, X (1-10) + small division + clock = several minutes

ji° tian¯, X (1-10) + days = several days

jin¯ tian¯, current, present + day = today

jia¯ jia¯ all families

jia¯, family, home

jia¯ li°, the family, my family

jin` lai´, to enter + motion toward speaker = come in

jing`, in the final analysis

ju`, MW for phrases and sentences

jue´ de´, to feel + to acquire = to feel that...

jun¯ dui`, military + squad = the army, the military

jun¯ guan°, military + official = officer

jun¯ ren´, military people

kai¯ kou°, to open one's mouth

kai¯ men´, open the door

kai¯ shi°, to open, to initiate + to begin = to begin

kai¯ wan´ xiao`, to make a joke

kai¯ wan´ xiao`, to make a joke

kan` dao`, to look at + motion toward a destination = to spot (somebody or something)

kan` jian(`), look at + perceive = succeed in seeing

kan` qi° lai´, appears to be [used to express doubt about validity of a perception]

kan` wan´, look + finish = to finish reading or looking at

kan` qing¯ -chu, to see clearly

kan` -zhe, look + maintained action marker = kept on looking

kao°, to examine somebody, to take an examination; an examination

kao° shi`, an examination; to take an examination

kao° wan´, to examine + to finish = to have finished with examinations

ke´, as an adverb, a strong intensifier of what follows

ke`, lesson; class

ke° bu` ke´ yi°, can/can not = whether XXX may

ke° neng´, possible, possibly, maybe

ke° pa`, can + fear = "fear -ible," i.e., fearsome

ke° xi´, can + pity = pitiable, unfortunate

ke´ yi°, permissible

ke` ren´, guest

kan` -kan, to take a look at

ke° shi` = dan` shi` = but

ke` qi(`), "the air of a guest" -- guests are supposed to be deferential in all things, reserved, polite, never daring to impose in any way, so, here, "to stand on ceremony."

kan` cheng´, to view (as) + become = to view as, to look upon as

ku¯, to weep

kuai` kuar¯ -de, rapidly

kuai` -zi, chopsticks

-la, this is a final particle that serves only to "flavor" the sentence, to give it a certain kind of emphasis, perhaps equivalent to "It sure does..." in English.

lai´ bu` ji´, come + not + catch up with = to not get there in time, to not have the time to do something

YYY lai´ -de XXX, an XXX from YYY

lan° de´, too lazy to bother to...

lao°, to be old

lao° shi¯, teacher

lao° Tian´, "Old" Tian. Tian is the man's family name. Lao° is used as a term of familiar respect here.

lao° jia¯, old home. One's lao° jia¯ is similar to "home town" except that it's really your ancestral home, so if your folks all came from Shanghai, but they moved to Beijing before you were born, your lao° jia¯ would still be Shanghai.

lao° tou´ -zi, (not very respectful) old guy, gaffer

lao´ yuan°, a very long way away

lei`, to be tired, weary

li´ kai¯, to leave + to open (a distance between) --> to leave somewhere, to leave somebody (wife or husband), etc.

li° after a noun frequently = li° -tou, inside

li° mian`, lining, inner + surface = inside

li° -tou, lining, inner + head = inside

lian´, linking on down to the least likely one to do it who is..., i.e., "even..."

lian°, face

-le, sentence le. When it is at the end of the sentence and governs the sentence, le means something like, "It has come to pass that...," or, "As of now..."

-le, verb-ending le -- indicates that someone did indeed do the action described by the verb

-le verb-ending le and sentence-ending le combined in one: As of now (did =) has done....

li° mao`, ceremony + demeanor = courteous, polite

ling` wai`, "on the side," in addition to others

liu´, to leave unused, unchanged, etc.

liu´ xue´ -sheng, remain + student = foreign students

lu`, road, way

lu` -shang, on the road, on the way

-luo, a "flavoring" particle used to indicate "being impressed"

ma´ fan°, troublesome

ma´, horse; a common surname

ma° fang´, horse + house = stable

ma¯ -ma, mama, mom -- a familiar term of address and reference for one's own mother

mai°, to buy

mei´ -le, to not have + "did that" marker --> lost

mei´ you° shen´ -mo, to not have any particular degree of, amount of, etc., as in "I'm not particularly good looking."

mei´ you°, to not have, therefore, "There was not," or "There were not."

men`, depressed, melancholy

men` men` bu´ le` -de, in a depressed and unhappy way

Meng` xian¯ sheng¯, Mr. Meng -- Here he is repeating the guest's name with the "xian¯ sheng(¯)" to "correct" the guest's self-belittling use of xiao°.

Meng` San¯, Meng` three, third child of the Meng family.

Meng` xiong¯, Family name Meng + elder brother -- the speaker is trying to find a term of respect that the guest will accept so he tries "Brother Meng."

men´, MW for classes (i.e., subjects)

men´ kou°, door + orifice = doorway

ming´ bai´, bright + white = "for the light to turn on in your head"

ming´ nian´, (bright =) new + year = next year

ming´ -zi, name (of a person)

man` man` -de, slowly

mang´, busy

mi´, to lose (the way, etc.)

mu° qin¯, mother (formal)

na´, to pick up, to take

na´ guo`, pick up + bring over = took into his own grasp

na`, Well, then...

nan´ guo`, difficult + to pass through = to feel bad about something, to feel sorrow, etc.

nan´ xue´, difficult to study --> hard to learn

nan´, difficult

-ne, (1) Gives a sense of suspension at the end of what would otherwise begin a declarative sentence, as in, "And you are....?" (2) sentence ending for sentence that include a QW (shei´, etc.) in the body of the question. (3) Sometimes is just used for euphony or "flavoring."

nei` (yi´) -ge, that (one)

na` yang`, that way

nar`, there, that place

nei° guo´, X country --> which country

nei° zhang¯, which rectangular unit

neng´, (physically) able -- unhindered by environmental factors

nin´, you (formal)

nin´ jin¯ tian¯ lai´ zher`, "Your coming here today." Stands as the subject of "hen° yong´ gan°."

nian´, year(s)

nian´ qing¯, years + light (not heavy) = young

ne` -mo, Well then...

ne` -mo, thusly, that degree of

ne` -mo, In that case, then

nian` shu¯, to read books

nong´ ren´ farmers

nu° peng´ -you, girlfriend

The object of you° is itself a sentence.

ou`, Oh!

pa`, to fear

pai´, cards

peng´ you°, friend

peng´ you° -men, friend + friend + pluralizer = friends

pu¯ ke` pai´, poker

structure is: PREDICATEa (to) PREDICATEb

pu° tong¯, widespread + reaching throughout --> ordinary

qi´ guai`, marvelous + anomalous = strange

qi´ zhong¯, time period + md

qi´ zhong¯, time period + middle = midterm

qi´ -qi, ride straddling.

qi° lai´, to arise, to get up in the morning; to rise up

qi´ -qi, ride straddling (duplicated) -- duplicated verbs indicate doing something in a non-serious way.

qi´ ma°, ride straddling + horse = to ride a horse

shang` ci`, above (on the calendar, in the book) + time = the last time that....

qi´ shang` qu`, ride straddling + ascend + motion away from the speaker = to mount a horse, bicycle, etc.

qi´ shang` ma° qu`, ride straddling + ascend + horse + motion away from the speaker = to mount the horse

qi¯ nian´, "seven years" acts as the predicate here.

qi` si^, anger + death = to anger to death, make someone die of anger

qiang´, wall of a house, wall around a house

qing° zuo`, request + to sit = (I) request you to sit, i.e., Please be seated.

qing° shuo¯, request + to speak = Please say, please tell me about it.

XXX qian´ -tou, fore + head = in front of XXX

qian´ xie¯ ri` -zi, several days (before =) ago

qing°, to request

qing¯ -chu, clear (not blurred)

qing° -le jia`, request + "did indeed" marker + vacation, i.e. "has requested a leave of absence"

qiu´, ball

qu`, motion not toward the speaker, to go

quan´ jia¯, entire + family = the whole family

que`, contrary to what you might expect

ran´ hou`, thus + aft = after that

rang`, to give way before, to permit --> to let, to cause, to have somebody do something

ren´, "people"

ren´ gen¯ -zhe ni°, people following you

ren` -shi, to recognize

ren´ shuo¯ hua`, What were there? There were ren´ shuo¯ hua`, people speaking. This clause stands as the object of the verb you° .

ren´ xing` huo° che¯, (object of you°), there are people surnamed Train

ri` ben° fan`, sun + root + rice = Japanese cuisine

ri` ji`, sun, day + record, daily record, journal, diary

rong´ yi`, easy

shang` cha´, lit., "Bring up some tea." In English we would say, "Bring out some tea."

shang` mian`, above, on + surface, face = on the surface, on it

si` chuan¯, the province of Sichuan, "Four Rivers."

si` chuan¯, the province of Sichuan, "Four Rivers."

shang¯ xin¯, injury + heart = emotionally devastated

shang`, "on," or, in English, "in"

shang` ke`, ascend + (to) + lessons, go to classes

shei´, X person --> who

shen¯ ti°, body (frequently actually refers to one's health)

sheng¯ qi`, to produce + lifebreath = get angry

shen´ -mo, X thing. Sometimes it can be translated as "what."

shi´ -tou, stone, rock

shi°, to cause

shi` jie`, world

shi`, at the beginning a sentence may = "It is the case that..."

shou¯ dao`, receive + motion toward destination = did receive, received.

shou°, hand

shou´ li°, lit., "in his hands"

shou° xia`, hand + beneath = under the control of

shi¯ shou°, corpse

shi`, the aforesaid is, the aforesaid amounts to

shi´ fen¯, 10 parts out of ten parts = 100%

shi´ hou`, time

shi´ jian¯, time + interval = time period

shi¯ mu°, teacher + mother, term of respect for the teacher's wife

shi` -de, that is the case, that is correct

shi` (in this context = What you have done (today) is...

shi` bu´ -shi, is + not + is = whether

shi` -ge, = shi` yi´ -ge

shi` li` power + strength = (political, military, etc.) power

shi` qing´, event + true conditions = business, affairs

shi` ya¯! exclamation of agreement

shi´ ji° nian´, ten + X number of + years, i.e., ten plus years, more than ten years, somewhere between ten and twenty years

shi`, event, thing (that is going on).

shi` qing´, event, affair

shi` zuo`, events, "things" + to do = things to do

sheng¯ huo´, life, as in "Life Magazine."

shou`, thin, skinny

shu` -le shu`, counted them (casually)

shuai° -le xia` qu`, to have thrown something down

shu¯ -fu, to be comfortable

shui°, water

shui`, to sleep [[N.B. this verb must take an object.]]

shui` jiao`, to sleep + a "sleep" = to sleep (V + Obj const.)

shuo¯ chu¯, to speak + to exit, to put out = to openly express (what otherwise would be left unsaid)

shuo¯ cuo` le hua`, to have said the wrong, the inappropriate, thing

shuo¯ qi° hua` lai´, start up talking

si° hu´ tu´, dead-end lane

song`, to see someone (or something) to its destination

song` lai´, to deliver + motion toward the speaker = to bring (somebody) something

Sun¯ Zi° Bing¯ Fa°, Master Sun's Military Method, a famous early work on military strategy

suo´ yi°, therefore

su` she`, dormitory

sheng¯ yin¯, sound + sound = sound

si°, to die

suo°, MW for houses

suo´ yi°, therefore

ta¯, she.

Note that the clause "ta¯ dao` zher` lai´" is the first half of a PREDa to PREDb construction.

tan´ -guo hua`, to have had a chat with someone

ti´ mu`, a heading + eyes = a topic

tian¯, the sky

tian¯ qi(`), sky + lifebreath = weather

tian¯ -tian, every day --> all the time

ta¯, he, she. (This han` zi` is normally used only for animals.)

ta¯, he, she. (This han` zi` is normally used only for animals.)

tai` -tai, Mrs., lady

[SV] tao° yan`, irritating, disgusting, a pain in the neck
[TV] to dislike intensely

ti`, to do something in someone's stead

tiao´, MW for long thin things

tiao` -le qi° lai´, got started up (jumping =) bucking

tiao` shang(`) qu(`), jump + ascend + motion away from the speaker = to jump on

tiao` wu°, to jump + to wave hands = to dance

ting¯ dao`, to listen + to arrive at = to succeed in hearing

ting¯ shuo`, "hear tell," i.e. to hear that...

ting¯ ren´ shuo¯, [lit.] hear people say --> to have heard it said that...

ting´ xia` lai´, to stop (something one is engaged in)

tong´ dao`, to connect (as through a tube) + motion toward a destination = to connect to, to connect with

tong´ shi´, same + time = at the same time

tong´ shi`, same + endeavor = colleague

tong´ xue´, same + study = schoolmates

tou¯ du`, to stealthily cross (the border)

ting´ xia`, pause

tu´ shu¯ guan°, book + chart + building = library

wai` guo´, outside + country = foreign country

wai` hao`, outside + courtesy name = nickname

wai` -tou, outside

wan´, to finish; As a verb ending it stresses completion of a task, rather than the fact that somebody did do it.

wan´ de´ hen° feng`, play + get + very + crazy

wan´ qi° -le ba° xi`, got started up playing parlor tricks

wan´ qian´, play + money = to play for money

wang` -zhe, to look at + "keep on" marker = "and, looking at..."

wang` ji(`), perish from memory + record = to forget

wei` -le, or, occasionally, wei` liao°, for the sake of

wei` shen´ -mo, for the sake of what --> why

wen`, to inquire about someone's well-being

wen` hou`, to inquire about something

wen` -ti, question --> problem

wen` xia` qu`, ask + below (in the "book") + go = keep on with that line of questioning, finish asking the question

wen` ti´, question --> problem

wo° dao` Zhong¯ Guo´, stands as subject and = My (arrival =) being in China

wo° zhe` li°, here where I am, here in my hands

wo°, to grasp in the hand, to clasp

wo° zhei` -ge ren´, I am the kind of a person who... (Usually we see "Ni° zhei` -ge ren´...," i.e., "You're the kind of a person who..." -- and it usually is the preface to a negative comment.

wu° jiao`, meridian, noon + sleep = nap

wu¯ li°, room + inside = (inside ) the room

wai` mian`, outer + face, surface = outside

wo° kan`, I + to view --> in my view, as I see it

wu¯ -zi, a room + nominalizer = a room

xi- ban` ying- yÄ°, Spanish + half + English + language --> Spanglish

xi° huan¯, to like

xi¯ sheng¯, to sacrifice, to be sacrificed

xia`, to descend --> to drop (e.g., food into boiling water to be cooked); for precipitation to occur

xia` -ge, the next whatever-it-is in series. (To understand "xia` -ge," think of events marked on a calendar or recorded in a date book.)

xia` yu^, to descent + rain = to rain

xia` chui´, down + hang down = drooping down

xia` -ge xing¯ qi´ liu`, the Saturday of next week

xia` ci`, below + time in sequence = the next time that

xia` wu°, below + zenith = post meridian, afternoon.

xiao° Ge¯, "Little" Ge. Ge is the man's family name. Xiao° is used as a term of familiar respect here.

xiao° Lin´, "Little" Lin. Lin is the man's family name. Xiao° is used as a term of familiar respect here.

xiao° hai´ -zi, children

xiao° sheng¯, small + sound = in a soft voice

xiao` qi° lai´, got started up laughing

xian¯ prior, first. Here, it is used to set out an order of procedure. Do this first (and later we'll do something else).

xiang¯ xin`, believe

xiang°, to think --> to want to, to intend to (as in "I was thinking of eating out...").

xiang° jia¯, would like to + family, home = homesick

xie`, to thank

xie`xie, to thank

xie` -xie, (I) thank (you)

xi° huan¯, to like

xin¯, new

xin`, letter

xia` -le, to precipitate + verb-le = it did happen that it rained, or, it has rained

xiang° -le xiang°, thought for a moment

xiao` -le xiao(`), smiled; laughed a little bit

xiao° xin¯, small (narrow focus) + heart/mind = be careful

xian¯ -sheng, prior born --> a term of respect, equivalent to Senor (senior).

xian¯ sheng(¯) gui` xing`, the prior born's noble surname, i.e., "What is your family name?"

xie° xin` -de ren´, person who wrote the letters

xian¯ qian´, prior + fore = before, in the past

xian` zai`, now

xiang`, to direct oneself toward

xiao° xing` Meng`, My insignificant family name is Meng`.

xiao`, to laugh; to laugh at, make fun of

xiao` -le xiao(`), gave a little laugh

xiang° -le xiang°, thought for a moment

xiao´ jie°, little + elder sister = Miss

xiao° lu`, little road, here, path

xie¯, some. Here, "xie¯" is short for "yi` xie¯," some, several, etc.

xie°, to write

xie° xin`, to write letters

xia` -zhe, to descend --> to fall + particle indicating persistance of a phenomenon = is (or has been) precipitating

xie° -zhe, to write + particle indicating persistance of a phenomenon = was written

xin¯ li°, heart + inside = in one's heart, in one's mind

xing¯ qi´, star + period = week

xing`, to be surnamed; a surname, family name. (Avoid "last name.")

xing´ dong`, to act, to go into action

xin` -shang, on the letter, i.e., in the letter

xue´ qi´, to study + period = semester

xue´ -sheng, student

xue´ xiao`, school

xue´ zhe°, study + the one who = one who studies, i.e., a scholar

ya¯! exclamatory sentence ending

yan´ jiu`, grind away at + get to the bottom = to research

yan° pi´, eye + skin = eyelid

yao`, intend to, want to

yao`, to require

yao` -shi, if

There is an implicit "ta¯" before ye°.

ye´ xu°, perhaps

This is the other end of the "lian´" clause.

yi´ -ge duo¯, one plus, i.e., more than one (but less than two)

yi` ban¯ ren´, run-of-the-mill people, ordinary people

yi` bian¯, on one side

yi` diar°, one + spot + diminiative = a little

yi` dian°, one + spot = one point

yi` tian¯, one + day = the entire day

yi` tian¯ -de, a whole day's worth of

yi` jia¯, (one =) the entire + family = the whole family

yi° jing¯, already + pass through (event) = already

yi` nian° duo¯, "one year plus," i.e., more than a year

yi` zhang¯ yi` zhang¯ -de, one by one

yi´ jian`, as soon as XXX sees YYY

yi` qi°, (as) one + spring up = together

yi` tian¯ -de yu°, rain in the amount or duration of one day, i.e., rain for the entire day

yi° wei´, to take + to be, i.e., to take one thing (somebody, something) be be something, to be a certain way, etc. In this case, "I took it that..." Almost always it indicates that the speaker was laboring under a misapprehension.

yi` dian°, a little

yi´ ding`, definitely, certainly

shi` -ge, = shi` yi´ -ge

yi¯ one + VERB = the first thing XXX did when VERB occurred

yi¯ jian`, one + perceive = the first thing XXX did when he saw YYY

yi` liang° -ge, one or two

ying¯ gai¯, ought, should

ying¯ wen´, English (written) language

ying¯ yu°, English language

XXX yi° qian´, XXX + "to the" + fore = before XXX (If there is no XXX mentioned, it means before now.)

yi` liang° -ge, one or two

yin¯ ci°, depending on + this = therefore

yin¯ -wei, because

yong`, (noun) utility, use, usefulness

yong`, (verb) to use, to employ

yong´ gan°, brave

you° -de shi´ hou`, sometimes

you° xin¯ shi`, to have + heart/mind + business = to have something on one's mind

you° shi`, "to have business, affair, etc.," It may mean, "If you have something on your mind..."

you°, to have --> there are (just as in English "My socks have holes in them." = "There are holes in my socks.")

you° yi` -si, have + meaning, significance = to be meaningful, to be interesting

you° -le, "to have" + did do -- so this phrase must be interpreted as "did acquire."

yi` yi`, meaning + sense of right and wrong == signifigance, (higher) meaning

yi` xie-, one + several = a handful, several

yi` zhi´, one, the whole (day, year, etc.) + straight = straightaway, without deviation, without interruption

yi´ dai`, one + belt = the entire (belt =) region. cf. "farm belt"

yong´ gan°, brave, courageous

you° -ge = you° yi´ -ge, has one

you° ren´, there are people

yong` -yong, to use for a while

you° -de ren´, some people

you° yong`, to have + use (noun) = useful

you` AAA you` BBB, both XXX and also YYY

you`, again (refers to events that have already happened)

yun` -dong yun(`) -dong, take a little exercise

yu°, rain

yu° yi¯, rain + clothing = raincoat

Yuan´ Shi` Wu` Yu°, Genji Monogatari, the Tale of Genji.

zai`, next in sequence --> again

zai`, next in sequence --> again

zai` jian`, again + see = Goodbye

zai`, involved in, currently

zhang¯, MW for rectangular objects

zhe` -mo, thusly --> so [+ SV]

zhe` shi´, this + time = at this time

zhe` shi`, this + event, this event, this thing

zhei` yang` -ba, Let's do things this way...

zhan` hao°, stand + good, well = stand correctly

zhong¯ guo´, central + kingdom = China

zhong¯ wen´, central (kingdom) + written language = (written) Chinese language

zhong` yao`, heavy + required = important

zai` wo° kan`, located at + I, my + to view = in my view, in my opinion

zai` wo° zher`, at my place, here, in my home...

zou° lai´ zou° qu`, walk + come + walk + go = to walk back and forth, to pace the floor

zou° dao`, walk + motion toward a direction = walked to

zou° kai¯, walk + open (a distance between people) = to walk farther away

zhu`, to reside

zou° jin` lai´, walk + enter + motion toward the speaker = to come in, to enter

zen° -mo, usually "how" but here more like the English "What!?"

zen° -mo, how

zen° -mo, usually "how" but here more like the English "What!?"

zen° -mo, how, how to

-zhe, verb ending particle indicating the maintenance of a state or activity

Zhen¯ Li°, given name, pronounced "Mari" in Japanese

zheng`, = zheng` zai`

zheng` zai`, right now involved in (doing something)

zhu` zai`, to reside + located at = reside (at)

zao° jiu`, a long time ago (already)

zao° fan`, early + rice = breakfast

zai` ci`, one more time

zu´ qiu´, foot + ball = soccer

zui` jin`, most + recent = recently

zui` hou`, most + aft = at the very end, the very last

zui`, most

zhao°, to search for, to seek, to look someone up

zhe`, "this," here referring to the action of the person being spoken to

zhe`, "this," here used as a "header" for a "the kind of person X is" sort of description


zhei` -ge, this + MW = this (or, sometimes, "at this)

zhei` ji° tian-, these + X number of + days, the last few days, these days

zhei` yang`, in this way

zhe` xia`, short for zhe` yi´ xia` -zi, at this moment

zi` ji°, self + self = self, his/her own

zi` you´, self + thus = free, freely

zhan` chang°, war + field = battlefield

zhi¯ dao`, lit., know the Way, to know (some item of knowledge)

zhen¯, genuinely truly really

zhen¯ -de, genuine, true, real, not counterfeit

zhong¯ -tou, bell + head = hour

zhuan° guo` shen¯, turn + cross over some distance + body = turned in his place

zhun° bei`, to prepare

and will follow me back.

zhi°, only

zhi° -shi, it was only... ; all XXX did was...

But I am afraid that someone may have seen me come in here,

zhi´ hao°, lit., "only good," the best one can do is...

zhe` -mo, thusly, so (as in, "You've grown so tall!)

Of course that would be all right.... O.k., I'll be going now.

zhen¯ -de, genuinely, really

zheng` men´, correct, upright + gate = the main gate

Well, then, can you leave these letters for me to take a look at?

zheng` mian` fan° mian`, cover side and reverse side

zhei` wei`, this person-of-status, i.e., this gentleman

General Huang thought for a while and then slowly said:

zhei` xie¯, these

zhong¯ qiu´ jia¯, middle + autumn + festival = Mid Autumn Festival

and request you to help me by coming up with some idea.

zhu`, to reside, to stay (overnight, etc.)

zhu` shou´, help + hand (as in "hired hand") = helper

The only thing to do was to bring them all here for you to look at,

zhu` you° there are residing

zhuan° song`, rotate, turn + deliver = forward to someone

zai` wo° zher`, at my place

So I didn't know how I should handle this.

zai` zou° yi` dian°, next-in-sequence + walk + one + spot = go on a little farther

yao`, intend to, want to

That's right. That's [not easy =] unusual.

zou°! Take a walk! Get on out of here!

zou° le, walk, leave + "as of now" marker = I'll be leaving now.

After] so many years, a friend still remembers me.

zong° shi`, always

zuo`, to do, to make

having read these letters, I was very moved.

zuo`, to do, to make

zuo` fan`, to make + rice = to cook, to prepare a meal

whether these letters are genuine.

zuo´ tian¯, yesterday

zuo`, to do

But I do not know

zuo` xia`, to sit + to descend = to sit down

This clause stands as the object of the main verb.

Sorry. This item is as yet undefined. My mistake!

But I don't know

guai`, (SV) anomalous; (TV) to blame, find fault

"That's good," the General said elatedly.

nan´ guai`, it is no (anomaly =) wonder that...

wan° fan`, evening + meal = dinner, supper

would then mail the message to me.

wan° shang`, evening

wang`, to forget

If he were able to get out, his friend...

-men, pluralizer for certain nouns

you` again

He requested his friend to carry along a letter for me.

qian´, money

you° -de..., some....

he had a friend who was preparing to get out by sneaking across the border.

wan´ qian´, to play for money

hao° -le, good + change of status -le = o.k., that'll do it, etc.

In the third letter, the writer said,

biao´ yan°, to put on a performance of some kind for people

yi´ xia`, lit. one downbeat, a short period of time

None of the people of that (belt =) region can freely speak, nor have they freedom of activity.

ran´ hou`, thus + aft = after this, thereafter, next

na´ qi° lai´, grasp + spring up + motion toward speaker = pick up

The power of the Black Dragon Society is great, and average run of the mill people all fear them.

kan` qing¯-chu, (verb + resultative verb) to see clearly

na´ chu¯, grasp, pick up + exit = pull out

That is correct, General, the Black Dragon Society.

bao¯, to wrap, to bag

ming´ -zi, name + nominalizing ending = a name (of a person or thing)

Excuse me, what did you say, Black Dragon Society?

zhen` -mo, thusly, in that way, to that degree

ta¯, she

The Black Dragon Society of Sichuan is preparing to go into action again.

ji´ -le, extremely, to the Nth degree

ting¯, to listen, to hear

In the second letter it said,

cong´, from

na´ li°, X place, (sometimes) "where"

The [person's] name was not written in the letter.

But I have long taken you to be a friend.

Ri` Ben°, sun + root = Japan

You may not remember me,

are called

wen` dao`, asked (usually appears only in written material)

In the first letter it said:

da´ dao`, answered (usually appears only in written material)

xing` ming´, family name + given name = full name

nar`, there


A few days ago, I received three letters.