17th Century England: MERCANTILIST TOO; bourgeoisie, trade, beginnings
of capitalism; capital
accumulation; investment in textile production; (See Stav p. 86)
significance, p. 87.***
Commercial not feudal agriculture; diversified agriculture and diversified
people small, independent farmers; proprietors; healthy, internal
economy w/many linkages;
Not religious fanatics: few witch burnings, the inquisition never
came to England; little
censorship, Protestant reformation secularizes culture, separates
Church and State;
freedom of and from religion; widespread literacy; secular, education.
Those who came to New England wanted to work the land themselves;
but in the South,
landlords and slaves;
Few natives (killed or driven off); many English men and women; practically
race more definite, more of a social factor; more of a divide.
THUS: CLASS STRUCTURES: explain p. 165 how social patterns relate to political
Stav. p. 89: Who colonizes not enuf to explain dependency:
1) Mercantilism and dependency: Crown economic policies also caused dependency
underdevelopment in the colonies: Colonies to provide products and
markets for owning
country; state monopolies, price fixing, regulation; forced production
and export of raw
commodities: name them; import of manufacturers; forbidden to mfg
any competing stuff in
colonies; what was the source of colonial wealth? What did colonial
wealth finance? (their own colonization; Spain and Portugalís
dynastic and religious wars).
2) But Spain unable to absorb (provide market for) all the commodities
produced in colonies, Spain's
market small, didn't mfg much itself; few independent traders, entrepreneurs,
modern financial or commercial sector; nobility looked down on commerce;
Spain took the
gold, but spent it on a) wars, and b) mfg; exported raw mats: wool,
iron, wine; imported mfgs (cloth, iron) from Belgium, France, England
who profit; foreigners controlled much of foreign trade in Spain and Portugal.
(1580-1640 Portugal under Spanish rule)
THE LATIN AMERICAN PLANTATION ECONOMIES: (the American South too) mines
haciencas, 12 million slaves. underdeveloped vs. diversified, independent,
capable of development:
monocrop capable only of growth: explain growth without development
vertical vs. horozontal linkages: internal circulating economy: transportation;
Can plantation economies generate internal horozontal linkages? Why
or why not?
versus: Colonial North America: independent, diversified, small producers
for domestic consumption AND export: therefore wealth stays at home: little
wealth, poor soil, climate; mercantile restrictions;
So, Am colonies supplied carrying trade & Caribbean: fish, beef, grain
for rum, to Africa for gold, slaves; No direct supervision by England.
p. 97 Why was European trade with Latin America more lucrative that
with India and China together, even as late as 1807?
WHAT DOES THE EXAMPLE OF BARBADOS (Stav 89) TELL US? CUBA? Barbados: sugar
cane introduced in 1640 with what consequences?
The NATURE of the colonial economy explains dependency: Large plantations
destroy or marginalize rural smallholders, the independent farmers
who could provide an internal economy w/linkages; slaves not consumers.
What ELSE happens in a monocrop economy re: the example of Guiana
What can you conclude about plantation economies? ruins local economy,
ecology; replaces it with forced labor monocrop, for export; extractive
infrastructure; SAME PATTERN TODAY.
Stav. p. 95: chart: If one in four made it, how many people came
out of Africa?
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