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Student Protest / Anti-Vietnam:
Recommended Sources

Rhetorical Criticism

Andrews, James R.

"Confrontation at Columbia: A Case Study in Coercive Rhetoric." Quarterly Journal of Speech 55 (1969): 9–16.

Bass, Jeff D.

"The Rhetorical Opposition to Controversial Wars: Rhetorical Timing as a Generic Consideration." Western Journal of Speech Communication 43 (1979): 180–191.

Beebe, Thomas O. "Ballad of the Apocalypse: Another Look at Bob Dylan's 'Hard Rain'." Text and Performance Quarterly 11 (1991): 18-34.
Bennett, W. Lance, Patricia Dempsey Harris,Janet K. Laskey, Alan H. Levitch, and Sarah E. Monrad. "Deep and Surface Images in the Construction of Political Issues: The Case of Amnesty." Quarterly Journal of Speech 62 (1976): 109-126.

Benson, Thomas W., and Bonnie Johnson.

"The Rhetoric of Resistance: Confrontation with the Warmakers, Washington, D.C., October, 1967." Communication Quarterly 16 (1968): 35–42.

Bosmajian, Haig A.

"Obscenity and Protest." Communication Quarterly 18 (1970): 9–14.

Cherwitz, Richard A. "Making Inconsistency: The Tonkin Gulf Crisis." Communication Quarterly 28 (1980): 27-37.

Chesebro, James W.

"Rhetorical Strategies of the Radical Revolutionary." Communication Quarterly 20 (1972): 37–48.

Cox, J. Robert.

"Perspectives on the Rhetorical Criticism of Movements: Antiwar Dissent, 1964–1970." Western Journal of Speech Communication 38 (1974): 254–268.

Crocker, James W.

"A Rhetoric of Encounter Following the May 4th, 1970, Disturbances at Kent State University." Communication Quarterly 25 (1977): 47–56.

DeCaro, Peter A. Rhetoric of Revolt: Ho Chi Minh's Discourse for Revolution. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003.
Denisoff, R. Serge. Sing a Sing of Social Significance. Bowling Green: Bowling Green State UP, 1983.
Dionisopoulos, George N., and Steven R Goldzwig. "'The Meaning of Vietnam': Political Rhetoric as Revisionist Cultural History." Quarterly Journal of Speech 78 (1992): 61-79.
Dionisopoulos, George N., Victoria J. Gallagher, Steven R. Goldzwig, and David Zarefsky. "Martin Luther King, The American Dream and Vietnam: A Collision of Rhetorical Trajectories." Western Journal of Speech Communication 56 (1992): 91-107.

Doolittle, Robert J.

"Riots as Symbolic: A Criticism and Approach." Central States Speech Journal 27 (1976): 310–317.

Eich, Ritch E., and Donald Goldmann.

"Communication, Confrontation, and Coercion: Agitation at Michigan." Central States Speech Journal 27 (1976): 120–128.

Gregg, Richard B.

"The Ego-Function of the Rhetoric of Protest." Philosophy & Rhetoric 4 (1971): 71–91.

Griffin, Leland M.

"When Dreams Collide: Rhetorical Trajectories in the Assassination of President Kennedy." Quarterly Journal of Speech 70 (1984): 111–131.

Gustainis, J. Justin, ed. American Rhetoric and the Vietnam War. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1993.

Gustainis, J. Justin, and Dan F. Hahn.

"While the Whole World Watched: Rhetorical Failures of Anti-War Protest." Communication Quarterly 36 (1988): 203–216.

Haiman, Franklyn S.

"The Rhetoric of the Streets: Some Legal and Ethical Considerations." Quarterly Journal of Speech 53 (1967): 99–114.

Huxman, Susan Schultz, and Denice Beatty Bruce. "Toward a Dynamic Generic Framework of Apologia: A Case Study of Dow Chemical, Vietnam, and the Napalm Controversy." Communication Studies 46 (1995): 57-72.

Jorgensen-Earp, Cheryl R.

"‘Toys of Desperation’: Suicide as Protest Rhetoric." Southern Communication Journal 53 (1987): 80–96.

Jurma, W. E.

"Moderate Movement Leadership and the Vietnam Moratorium Committee." Quarterly Journal of Speech 69 (1982): 262–272.

Kerr, Harry P.

"The Rhetoric of Political Protest." Quarterly Journal of Speech 45 (1959): 146–152

King, Andrew A.

"Power: The Rhetoric of Mobilization." Central States Speech Journal 29 (1978): 147–154.


"The Rhetoric of Power Maintenance: Elites at the Precipice." Quarterly Journal of Speech 62 (1976): 127–134.

Klumpp, James F.

"Challenge of Radical Rhetoric: Radicalization at Columbia." Western Journal of Speech Communication 37 (1973): 146–156.

Knupp, Ralph E.

"A Time for Every Purpose Under Heaven: Rhetorical Dimensions of Protest Music." Southern Communication Journal 46 (1981): 377–389.

Kosokoff, Stephen, and Carl W. Carmichael.

"The Rhetoric of Protest: Song, Speech, and Attitude Change." Southern Speech Communication Journal 35 (1970): 295–302.

Logue, Cal M., and John H. Patton. "From Ambiguity to Dogma: The Rhetorical Symbols of Lyndon B. Johnson on Vietnam." Southern Speech Communication Journal 47 (1981): 310-329.
Makay, John J., and Alberto Gonzalez. "Dylan's Biographical Rhetoric and the Myth of the Outlaw Hero." Southern Speech Communication Journal 52 (1986): 165-180.
Mansfield, Dorothy M. "A Blessitt Event: Reverend Arthur Blessitt Invites Youth to 'Tune In, Turn On, Drop Out'." Southern Speech Communication Journal 37 (1971): 163-174.

Martin, Howard H.

"The Rhetoric of Academic Protest." Communication Studies 17 (1966): 274–250.

Newman, Robert P. "Under the Veneer: Nixon's Vietnam Speech of November 3, 1969." Quarterly Journal of Speech 56 (1970): 168-178.
Sanger, Kerran L. "Functions of Freedom Singing in the Civil Rights Movement: The Activists'
Implicitly Rhetorical Theory." Howard Journal of Communications 8 (1997): 179-195.

Scott, Robert L. , and Donald K. Smith.

"The Rhetoric of Confrontation." Quarterly Journal of Speech 55 (1969): 1–8.

Smith, F. Michael. "Rhetorical Implications of the 'Aggression' Thesis in the Johnson Administration's Vietnam Argumentation." Central States Speech Journal 23 (1972): 217-224.
Stewart, Charles J.   "Championing the Rights of Others and Challenging Evil: The Ego Function in the Rhetoric of Other-Directed Social Movements." Southern Communication Journal
64 (1999): 91-105.


"The Ego Function of Protest Songs: An Application of Gregg's Theory of Protest Rhetoric." Communication Studies 42 (1991): 240–253.

Smith, Craig R. "Zeal as a Function of Danger." Today's Speech 16 (1968): 29-31.

Windt, Theodore.

Presidents and Protesters: Political Rhetoric in the 1960s. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1990.

Yoder, Jess.

"The Protest of the American Clergy in Opposition to the War in Vietnam." Communication Quarterly 17 (1969): 51–59.

Zagacki, Kenneth S. "Rhetoric, Failure, and the Presidency: The Case of Vietnam." Communication Studies 43 (1992): 42-55.


Cottrell, Robert. "I. F. Stone: A Maverick Journalist's Battle with the Superpowers." Journalism History 12 (1985): 62-67.
Gitlin, Todd. The Sixties: Years of Hope, Days of Rage. New York: Bantam, 1987.
Miller, James. Democracy is in the Streets: From Port Huron to the Siege of Chicago. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1987.
  Vietnam Online. The American Experience. PBS Online. PBS/WGBH, 1983, 1997. URL: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/vietnam/. Accessed 2/22/00.