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Sources in Presidential Rhetoric

Critical Sources in Rhetoric and Communication
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General, Generic and Comparative
American Presidents: Life Portraits. A Site to Complement C-Span's Twentieth Anniversary Television Series, Mar-Dec. 1999. 14 Oct 2002. <http://www.americanpresidents.org/>.
Presidential Libraries. National Archives and Records Administration.
Program in Presidential Rhetoric. Center for Presidential Studies and Dept. of Speech Communication, Texas A&M.
Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States. National Archives and Records Administration.
Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents. National Archives and Records Administration.
Achter, P. J. "Narrative, Intertextuality, and Apologia in Contemporary Political Scandals." Southern Communication Journal 65 (2000): 318-333.
Alisky, Marvin. "White House Wit: Presidential Humor to Sustain Policies, from Lincoln to Reagan." Presidential Studies Quarterly 20 (1990): 373-382.
Anderson, D. G. "Power, Rhetoric, and the State: A Theory of Presidential Legitimacy." Review of Politics 50 (1988): 198-214.
Anderson, Karrin Vasby. "From Spouses to Candidates: Hillary Rodham Clinton, Elizabeth Dole, and the Gendered Office of U.S. President." Rhetoric and Public Affairs 5 (2002): 105-132.
Ball, M. A. "Political Language and the Search for an Honorable Peace: Presidents Kennedy and Johnson, Their Advisors, and Vietnam Decision Making." Beyond Speech and Symbols: Explorations in the Rhetoric of Politicians and the Media. Ed. C. De Landtsheer & O. Feldman. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2000. 35-51.
Baskerville, Barnet. "The Illusion of Proof." Western Journal of Communication 25 (1961): 236-242.
Beasley, Vanessa B. "Engendering Democratic Change: How Three U.S. Presidents Discussed Female Suffrage." Rhetoric and Public Affairs 5 (2002): 79-103.
---. "Identity, Democracy, and Presidential Rhetoric." Politics, Discourse, and American Society: New Agendas. Ed. R. P. Hart and B. H. Sparrow. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2001. 19-34.
---. "Making Diversity Safe for Democracy: American Pluralism and the Presidential Local Address, 1885-1992." Quarterly Journal of Speech 87 (2001): 25-40.
---. "The Rhetoric of Ideological Consensus in the United States: American Principles and American Pose in Presidential Inaugurals." Communication Monographs 68 (2001): 169-183.
---. You, the People: American National Identity in Presidential Rhetoric. College Station: Texas A & M UP, 2004.
Bennet, Gordon C. "The Heckler and the Heckled in the Presidential Campaign of 1968." Communication Quarterly 27 (1979): 28-37.
Benoit, William L. "Acclaiming, Attacking, and Defending in Presidential Nominating Acceptance Addresses, 1960-1996." Quarterly Journal of Speech 85 (1999): 247-267.
Berens, John F. "Like a Prophetic Spirit." Quarterly Journal of Speech 63 (1977): 290-297.
Berquist, Goodwin F., and James L. Golden. "Media Rhetoric: Criticism and the Public Perception of the 1980 Presidential Debates." Quarterly Journal of Speech 67 (1981): 125-137.
Black, Edwin. "Electing Time." Quarterly Journal of Speech 59 (1973): 125-129.
Bostdorff, Denise M. The Presidency and the Rhetoric of Foreign Crisis. Columbia: U of South Carolina P, 1993.
Bradley, Bert E. "Jefferson and Reagan: The Rhetoric of Two Inaugurals." Southern Journal of Speech Communication 48 (1983): 119-136.
---. "A Response to "Two Inaugurals: A Second Look"." Southern Journal of Speech Communication 48 (1983): 386-390.
Campbell, Karlyn Kohrs, and Kathleen Hall Jamieson. Deeds Done in Words: Presidential Rhetoric and the Genres of Governance. Chicagor: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1990.
Carson, Herbert L. "War Requested: Wilson and Roosevelt." Central States Speech Journal 10 (1958): 28-32.
Ceaser, J, Thurow, G. E., Tulis, J., & Bessette, J. M. "The Rise of the Rhetorical Presidency." Presidential Studies Quarterly 11 (1981): 158-171.
Cohen, J. "Presidential Rhetoric and the Public Agenda." American Journal of Political Science 39 (1995): 87-107.
Corcoran, P. E. "Presidential Concession Speeches: The Rhetoric of Defeat." Political Communication 11 (1994): 109-131.
Cornfield, Michael. "Presidential Rhetoric and the Credibility Gap." Communication Research 14 (1987): 462-469.
Dause, Charles A. "Analysis of a Debate: Two Perspectives." Central States Speech Journal 23 (1972): 86-91.
Dorsey, Leroy G., ed. The Presidency and Rhetorical Leadership. College Station: Texas A&M U, 2002.
Dow, Bonnie J. "The Function of Epideictic and Deliberative Strategies in Presidential Crisis Rhetoric." Western Journal of Speech Communication 53 (1989): 294-317.
Ellis, Richard, and Aaron Wildavsky. ""Greatness" Revisited: Evaluating the Performance of Early American Presidents in Terms of Cultural Dilemmas." Presidential Studies Quarterly 21 (1991): 15-34.
Erickson, Keith V. "Presidential Rhetoric's Visual Turn: Performance Fragments and the Politics of Illusionism." Communication Monographs 67 (2000): 138-157.
---. "Presidential Spectacles: Political Illusionism and the Rhetoric of Travel." Communication Monographs 65 (1998): 141-153.
Fields, Wayne. Union of Words: A History of Presidential Eloquence. New York: Free P, 1996.
Fisher, Walter R. "Reaffirmation and Subversion of the American Dream." Quarterly Journal of Speech 59 (1973): 160-167.
---. "Rhetorical Fiction and the Presidency." Quarterly Journal of Speech 66 (1980): 119-126.
Friedenberg, Robert V. ""Selfish Interests" or the Prerequisites for Political Debate: An Analysis of the 1980 Presidential Debate and its Implications for Future Campaigns." Journal of the American Forensic Association 18 (1981): 91-98.
Gelderman, Carol W. All the Presidents' Words: The Bully Pulpit and the Creation of the Virtual Presidency. New York: Walker, 1997.
Germino, Dante L. The Inaugural Addresses of American Presidents: The Public Philosophy and Rhetoric. Lanham, MD: UP of America, 1984.
Goggin, Malcolm L. "The Ideological Content of Presidential Communications." American Politics Quarterly 12 (1984): 361-381.
Hart, Roderick P. Verbal Style and the Presidency: A Computer Based Analysis. Orlando: Academic Press, 1984.
Highlander, John P., and Lloyd I. Watkins. "A Closer look at the Great Debates." Western Journal of Communication 26 (1962): 39-48.
Ivie, Robert L. "Presidential Motives for War." Quarterly Journal of Speech 60 (1974): 337-345.
Kane, Peter E. "Evaluating the 'Great Debates'." Western Journal of Communication 30 (1966): 89-96.
Kaufer, David S. "The Ironist and Hypocrite as Presidential Symbols: A Nixon-Kennedy Analogy." Communication Quarterly 27 (1979): 20-26.
Kerr, Harry P. "The Great Debates in a New Perspective." Communication Quarterly 9 (1961): 9-11.
Kiewe, Amos, ed. The Modern Presidency and Crisis Rhetoric. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1993.
King, Robert L. "Transforming Scandal into Tragedy: A Rhetoric of Political Apology." Quarterly Journal of Speech 71 (1985): 289-301.
Kuypers, Jim A. Presidential Crisis Rhetoric and the Press in the Post-Cold War World. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1997.
Lim, Elvin T. "Five Trends in Presidential Rhetoric: An Analysis of Rhetoric from George Washington to Bill Clinton." Presidential Studies Quarterly 32 (2002): 328-366.
Martin, Martha Anna. "Ideologues, Ideographs, and "The Best Men": From Carter to Reagan." Southern Journal of Speech Communication 49 (1983): 12-25.
McClerren, Beryl F. "Southern Baptists and the Religious Issue During the Presidential Campaigns of 1928 and 1960." Central States Speech Journal 18 (1967): 102-112.
Mehurst, Martin J., ed. Beyond the Rhetorical Presidency. College Station: Texas A & M UP, 1996.
Murphy, John M. "Knowing the President: The Dialogic Evolution of the Campaign History." Quarterly Journal of Speech 84 (1998): 23-40.
Olson, Kathryn M. "Constraining Open Deliberations In Times of War: Presidential War Justifications for Grenada and the Persian Gulf." Argumentation and Advocacy 27 (1991): 64-79.
Parry-Giles, Shawn J. The Rhetorical Presidency, Propaganda, and the Cold War, 1945-1955. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001.
Pauley, Garth E. The Modern Presidency and Civil Rights: Rhetoric on Race From Roosevelt to Nixon. College Station: Texas A&M Up, 2001.
Peterson, Tarla Rae. Green Talk in the White House: The Rhetorical Presidency Encounters Ecology. College Station: Texas A & M UP, 2004.
Phifer, Gregg. "Two Inaugurals: A Second Look." Southern Journal of Speech Communication 48 (1983): 378-385.
Pratt, James W. "An Analysis of Three Crisis Speeches." [Kennedy, Johnson, Eisenhower] Western Journal of Communication 34 (1970): 194-203.
Ray, Robert F. "Ghostwriting in Presidential Campaigns." Communication Quarterly 4 (1956): 13-15.
Ritter, Kurt, and Martin J. Medhurst, eds. Presidential Speechwriting: From the New Deal to the Reagan Revolution and Beyond. College Station: Texas A & M UP, 2004.
Ryan, Halford Ross. American Rhetoric from Roosevelt to Reagan. Prospect Heights, Ill.: Waveland, 1983.
Samovar, Larry A. "Ambiguity and Unequivocation in the Kennedy-Nixon Television Debates." Quarterly Journal of Speech 48 (1962): 277-279.
Stewart, Charles J. "The Pulpit in Time of Crisis: 1865 and 1963." Communication Monographs 32 (1965): 427-434.
University of Washington Discourse Analysis Group. "The Rhetorical Construction of a President." Discourse and Society 1 (1990): 189-200.
Weaver, Ruth Ann. "Acknowledgement of Victory and Defeat: The Reciprocal Ritual." Central States Speech Journal 33 (1982): 480-489.
Wilson, Gerald L. "Rhetorical Echos of a Wilsonian Idea." Quarterly Journal of Speech 43 (1957): 271-272.
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Bush, George H. W., Sr., 1989-1992
Palczewski, Catherine Helen, and Arnie Madsen. "The Divisiveness of Diversity: President Bush's University of Michigan Commencement Speech as an Example of the Linguistic 'Turnaround'." Argumentation and Advocacy 30 (1993): 16-27.
Rountree, J. Clarke. "The President as God, the Recession as Evil: "Actus, Status", and the President's Rhetorical Bind in the 1992 Election." Quarterly Journal of Speech 81 (1995): 325-352.
Stuckey, Mary. "Remembering the Future: Rhetorical Echoes of World War II and Vietnam in George Bush's Speech on the Gulf War." Communication Studies 43 (1992): 250-253.
University of Washington Discourse Analysis Group. "The Rhetorical Construction of a President." Discourse and Society 1 (1990): 189-200.
Bush, George W., Jr., 2001-2004
Bostdorff, Denise. "George W. Bush's Post-September 11 Rhetoric of Covenant Renewal: Upholding the Faith of the Greatest Generation." Quarterly Journal of Speech 89 (2003): 293-319.
Gunn, Joshua. "The Rhetoric of Exorcism: George W. Bush and the Return of Political Demonology." Western Journal of Communication 68 (2004): 1-23.
Zarefsky, David. "George W. Bush Discovers Rhetoric: September 20, 2001, and the U. S. Response to Terrorism." The Ethos of Rhetoric. Ed. Michael J. Hyde. Greenville: U of South Carolina P, 2004. 136-155.
Carter, Jimmy, 1977-1981
Altenberg, Les, and Robert Cathcart. "Jimmy Carter on Human Rights: A Thematic Analysis." Central States Speech Journal 33 (1982): 446-457.
Campbell, J. Louis. "Jimmy Carter and the Rhetoric of Charisma." Central States Speech Journal 30 (1979): 174-186.
Kraig, Robert Alexander. "The Tragic Science: The Uses of Jimmy Carter in Foreign Policy Realism." Rhetoric and Public Affairs 5 (2002): 1-30.
Patton, John H. "A Government as Good as its People: Jimmy Carter and the Restoration of Transcendance to Politics." Quarterly Journal of Speech 63 (1977): 249-257.
Cleveland, Grover, 1885-1889, 1893-1896
Hoffmann, Karen S. "'Going Public' in the Nineteenth Century: Grover Cleveland's Repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act." Rhetoric and Public Affairs 5 (2002): 57-77.
Clinton, William J., 1993-2001
Speech Archive. Clinton Presidential Center.
Benoit, William L., A. A. Kluykovski, J. P. McHale, and D. Airne. "A Fantasy Theme Analysis of Political Cartoons on the Clinton-Lewinsky-Starr Affair. Critical Studies in Media Communication 18 (2001): 377-394.
Blaney, J. R., and William L. Benoit. The Clinton Scandals and the Politics of Image Restoration. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001.
Brovero, Adrienne F. "'Thirteen Angry Men': Dale Bumpers' ad hominem Argument in the Impeachment Trial of President Clinton. Argumentation and Advocacy 36 (2000): 218-226.

Butler, J. R. "Somalia and the Imperial Savage: Continuities in the Rhetoric of War." Western Journal of Communication 66 (2002): 1-24.
Denton, Robert E., and R. L. Holloway, eds. The Clinton Presidency: Images, Issues, and Communication Strategies. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1996.
Glinert, Lewis. "Apologizing to the Nation." American Communication Journal 2.2 (February 1999). 27 July 2002. http://acjournal.org/holdings/vol2/Iss2/editorials/glinert/index.html.
Gronbeck, Bruce E. "Underestimating Generic Expectations: Clinton's Apologies of August 17, 1998." American Communication Journal 2.2 (February 1999). 27 July 2002. http://acjournal.org/holdings/vol2/Iss2/editorials/gronbeck/index.html.
Hogan, J. Michael. "Public Opinion and Journalistic Voyeurism: The lesson of the Clinton Apology." American Communication Journal 2.2 (February 1999). 27 July 2002. http://acjournal.org/holdings/vol2/Iss2/editorials/hogan/index.html
Holloway, R. L. "Taking the Middle Ground: Clinton's Rhetoric of Conjoined Values." The 1996 Presidential Campaign: A Communication Perspective. Ed. Robert E. Denton. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1998. 123-141.
Kiewe, Amos. "The Private vs. the Public: A Critical Assessment of Clinton's August 17, 1998 Address." American Communication Journal 2.2 (February 1999). http://acjournal.org/holdings/vol2/Iss2/editorials/kiewe/index.html.
Kramer, Michael R., and Kathryn M. Olson. "The Strategic Potential of Sequencing Apologia Stases: President Clinton's Self-Defense in the Monica Lewinsky Scandal." Western Journal of Communication 66 (2002): 347-368.
Jamieson, Kathleen Hall, Erika Falk, and Susan Scherr. "The Enthymeme Gap in the 1996 Presidential Campaign." PS: Political Science and Politics 32 (1999): 12-16.
Louden, Allan. "The Rhetoric of William Clinton: Selected Bibliography." Allan Louden's Academic Home Page. 17 Jul 2002. http://www.wfu.edu/%7Elouden/Political%20Communication/Bibs/Clinton.html.
Murphy, John M. "Inventing Authority: Bill Clinton, Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Orchestration of Rhetorical Traditions." Quarterly Journal of Speech 83 (1997): 71-89.
Parry-Giles, S. J., &T. Parry-Giles. "Collective Memory, Political Nostalgia, and the Rhetorical Presidency: Bill Clinton's Commemoration of the March on Washington, August 28, 1998." Quarterly Journal of Speech 86 (2000): 417-437.
Simons, Herbert W. "A Dilemma-Center Analysis of Clinton's August 17th Apologia: Implications for Rhetorical Theory and Method." Quarterly Journal of Speech 86 (2000): 438-453.
Smith, Stephen A., ed. Bill Clinton on Stump, State, and Stage: The Rhetorical Road to the White House. Fayetteville: U of Arkansas P, 1994.
Snee, B. J. "Clinton and Vietnam: A Case for Amnestic Rhetoric." Communication Quarterly 49 (2001): 189-202.
Waldman, Michael. POTUS Speaks: Finding the Words that Defined the Clinton Presidency. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000.
Walton, Douglas. "Use of ad hominem Argument in Political Discourse: The Battalino Case from the Impeachment Trial of President Clinton. Argumentation and Advocacy 36 (2000): 179-195.
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Eisenhower, Dwight D., 1953-1961
Chernus, Ira. Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace. College Station: Texas A & M UP, 2002.
---. General Eisenhower: Ideology and Discourse. East Lansing: Michigan State UP, 2002.
Crable, Richard E. "Ike: Identification, Argument, and Paradoxical Appeal." Quarterly Journal of Speech 63 (1977): 188-196.
Danielson, Waune A. "Eisenhower's February Decision: A Study of News Impact." Journalism Quarterly 33 (1956): 433-441.
Freeley, Austin J. "Ethos, Eisenhower, and the 1956 Campaign." Central States Speech Journal 9 (1958): 24-26.
Kennedy, Theodore R. "Eisenhower as Extempore Speaker." Journal of Communication 8 (1958): 151-155.
Liftin, Duane A. "Eisenhower on the Military-Industrial Complex: Critique of a Rhetorical Strategy." Central States Speech Journal 25 (1974): 198-209.
Marlin, Charles Lowell. "Eisenhower Before the Press." Communication Quarterly 9 (1961): 23-25.
Medhurst, Martin J. Dwight D. Eisenhower: Strategic Communicator. Great American Orators 19. Westport, CT: Greenwood P, 1993.
Medhurst, Martin J., ed. Eisenhower's War of Words: Rhetoric and Leadership. East Lansing: Michigan State, UP, 1994.
Mueller, Jean West, and Wynell Burroughs Schamel. ""Out of Fear and Into Peace": President Eisenhower's Address to the United Nations." Social Education 54 (1990): 163-164.
Sillars, Malcolm O. "The Presidential Campaign of 1952." Western Journal of Communication 22 (1958): 94-99.
Stern, Mark. "Presidential Strategies and Civil Rights: Eisenhower, the Early Years." Presidential Studies Quarterly 19 (1990): 769-796.
Ford, Gerald, 1974-1977
Hahn, Dan F. "Corrupt Rhetoric: President Ford and the Mayaguez Affair." Communication Quarterly 28 (1980): 38-43.
Klumpp, James F., and Jeffrey K. Lukeheart. "The Pardoning of Richard Nixon: A Failure in Motivational Strategy." Western Journal of Speech Communication 42 (1978): 116-123.
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Jackson, Andrew, 1829-1837
Strickland, William M. "The Rhetoric of Removal and the Trail of Tears: Cherokee Speaking Against Jackson's Indian Removal Policy, 1828-1832." Southern Speech Communication Journal 47 (1981): 292-309.
Sullivan, John. "Indecorous Argument: The Use of Madison and Monroe in the Election of 1828." Southern Speech Communication Journal 45 (1979): 378-393.
Jefferson, Thomas, 1801-1809
Browne, Stephen Howard. "'Circle of Our Felicities': Thomas Jefferson's First Inaugural Address and the Rhetoric of Nationhood." Rhetoric and Public Affairs 5 (2002): 409-.
---. Jefferson's Call for Nationhood: The First Inaugural Address. College Station: Texas A & M UP, 2003.
Hilbruner, Anthony, "Word and Deed: Jefferson's Addresses to the Indians." Speech Monographs 30 (1963): 328-334.
Vivian, Bradford. "Jefferson's Other." Quarterly Journal of Speech 88 (2002): 284-302.
Johnson, Lyndon B., 1963-1969
 Selected Speeches of Lyndon Baines Johnson. Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum. National Archives and Records Administration.
Ball, Moya Ann. "Revisiting the Gulf of Tonkin Crisis: An Analysis of the Private Communication of President Johnson and His Advisers." Discourse and Society 2 (1991): 281-296.
Bass, J. D. "The Appeal to Efficacy as Narrative Closure: Lyndon Johnson and the Dominican Crisis, 1965." Southern Speech Communication Journal 50 (1985): 366-381.
Brooks, William D. "A Field Study of the Johnson and Goldwater Campaign Speeches in Pittsburgh." Southern Speech Journal 32 (1966): 273-281.
Cherwitz, Richard A. "Making Inconsistency: The Tonkin Gulf Crisis." Communication Quarterly 28 (1980): 27-37.
---. "Lyndon Johnson and the 'Crisis' of Tonkin Gulf: A President's Justification of War." Western Journal of Speech Communication 42 (1978): 93-104.
Connelly, F. Marvin "Some Questions Concerning Lyndon Johnson's Rhetoric in the 1964 Presidential Campaign." Southern Speech Communication Journal 37 (1971): 11-20.
Gorden, William, and Robert Bunker. "The Sentimental Side of Mr. Johnson." Southern Speech Journal 32 (1966): 58-66.
Hahn, Dan F. "Archetype and Signature in Johnson's 1965 State of the Union." Central States Speech Journal 34 (1983): 236-246.
Hall, Robert N. "Lyndon B. Johnson's Speaking in the 1941 Senate Campaign." Southern Speech Journal 30 (1964): 15-23.
---. "Lyndon Johnson's Speech Preparation." Quarterly Journal of Speech 51 (1965): 168-176.
Harding, H. F. "Democratic Nominee: Lyndon B. Johnson." Quarterly Journal of Speech 50 (1964): 409-414.
Logue, Cal M., and John H. Patton. "From Ambiguity to Dogma: The Rhetorical Symbols of Lyndon B. Johnson on Vietnam." Southern Speech Communication Journal 47 (1981): 310-329.
Patton, John H. "An End and a Beginning: Lyndon B. Johnson's Decisive Speech of March 31, 1968." Today's Speech 21 (1973): 33-41.
Pauley, Garth E. "Rhetoric and Timeliness: An Analysis of Lyndon B. Johnson's Voting Rights Address." Western Journal of Communication 62 (1998): 26-53.
Phelps, Waldo, and Andrea Beck. "Lyndon Johnson's Address at the U.C.L.A. Charter Day Ceremony." Western Speech 29 (1965): 162-171.
Sigelman, Lee, and Lawrence Miller. "Understanding Presidential Rhetoric: The Vietnam Statements of Lyndon Johnson." Communication Research 5 (1978): 25-56.
Smith, F. Michael. "Rhetorical Implications of the 'Aggression' Thesis in the Johnson Administration's Vietnam Argumentation." Central States Speech Journal 23 (1972): 217-224.
Smith, Robert W. "The 'Second' Inaugural Address of Lyndon Baines Johnson: A Definitive Text." Speech Monographs 34 (1967): 102-108.
Weiss, Harold, and Haddon Robinson. "Lyndon B. Johnson." Quarterly Journal of Speech 46 (1960): 241.
Witherspoon, Patricia. ""Let Us Continue": The Rhetorical Initiation of Lyndon Johnson's Presidency." Presidential Studies Quarterly 17 (1987): 531-538.
Zagacki, Kenneth S. "Rhetoric, Failure, and the Presidency: The Case of Vietnam." Communication Studies 43 (1992): 42-55.
Zarefsky, David. "Civil Rights and Civil Conflict: Presidential Communication in Crisis." Central States Speech Journal 34 (1983): 59-66.
---. "The Great Society as a Rhetorical Proposition." Quarterly Journal of Speech 65 (1979): 364-378.
---. "Lyndon Johnson Redefines 'Equal Opportunity': The Beginnings of Affirmative Action." Central States Speech Journal 31 (1980): 85-94.
---. "President Johnson's War on Poverty: The Rhetoric of Three 'Establishment' Movements." Communication Monographs 44 (1977): 352-373.
---. "Subordinating the Civil Rights Issue: Lyndon Johnson in 1964." Southern Speech Communication Journal 48 (1982): 103-118.
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Kennedy, John F., 1961-1963
Selected Speeches [of] John Fitzgerald Kennedy. John Fitzgerald Kennedy Library.
Barrett, Harold. "John F. Kennedy Before the Greater Houston Ministeral Association." Central States Speech Journal 15 (1964): 259-266.
Benson, Thomas W. Writing J. F. K.: Presidential Rhetoric and the Press in the Bay of Pigs Crisis. College Station: Texas A & M UP, 2003.
Berquist, Goodwin F. "The Kennedy-Humphry Debate." Communication Quarterly 8 (1960): 2-3.
Bostrom, Robert N. ""I Give You A Man"--Kennedy's Speech for Adlai Stevenson." Communication Monographs 35 (1968): 129-136.
Depoe, S. P. "Space and the 1960 Presidential Campaign: Kennedy, Nixon, and 'Public Time'." Western Journal of Communication 55 (1991): 215-233.
Dorsey, Leroy G. "The Myth of War and Peace in Presidential Discourse: John F. Kennedy's 'New Frontier' Myth and the Peace Corps." Southern Communication Journal 62 (1996): 42-55.
Golden, James L. "John F. Kennedy and the 'Ghosts'." Quarterly Journal of Speech 52 (1966): 348-357.
Goldzwig, Steven R., and George N. Dionisopoulos. "In a Perilous Hour": The Public Address of John F. Kennedy. Great American Orators 22. Westport: Greenwood Publishing, 1994.
---. "John F. Kennedy's Civil Rights Discourse: The Evolution from 'Principled Bystander' to Public Advocate." Communication Monographs 56 (1989): 179-198.
---. "Legitimating Liberal Credentials for the Presidency: John F. Kennedy and the Strategy of Peace." Southern Communication Journal 60 (1995) : 312-331.
Griffin, Leland M. "When Dreams Collide: Rhetorical Trajectories in the Assassination of President Kennedy." Quarterly Journal of Speech 70 (1984): 111-131.
Harding, H. F. "John F. Kennedy: Campaigner." Quarterly Journal of Speech 46 (1960): 362-364.
Jordan, John W. “Kennedy’s Romantic Moon and Its Rhetorical Legacy for Space Exploration.” Rhetoric and Public Affairs 6 (2003): 209-232.
Kennedy, Edward B. "Another Look at Kennedy's Inaugural Address." Communication Quarterly 13 (1965): 17-19.
Kerr, Harry P. "John F. Kennedy." Quarterly Journal of Speech 46 (1960): 241.
Murphy, John M. "Crafting the Kennedy Legacy." Rhetoric and Public Affairs 3 (2000): 577-601.
Stelzner, Hermann G. "Humphrey and Kennedy Court West Virginia, May 3, 1960." Southern Journal of Speech Communication 37 (1971): 21-33.
Wager, Gerald A. "J. F. K. and the Offshore Islands." Communication Quarterly 15 (1967): 27-29.
Warnick, Barbara. "Argument Schemes and Construction of Social Reality: John F. Kennedy's Address at the Houston Ministerial Association." Communication Quarterly 44 (1996) : 183-196.
Wolfarth, Donald. "John F. Kennedy in the Tradition of Inaugural Speeches." Quarterly Journal of Speech 47 (1961): 124-132.
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Lincoln, Abraham, 1861-1865 See Sources on Lincoln in The Rhetorical Lincoln pages.
Nixon, Richard M., 1969-1974
Alexander, Frederick G. "Richard M. Nixon and Nelson A. Rockefeller." Quarterly Journal of Speech 47 (1960): 245.
Asen, Robert M. "Nixon's Welfare Reform: Enacting Historical Contradictions of Poverty Discourses." Rhetoric and Public Affairs 4 (2001): 261-279.
Baudhuin, E. Scott. "From Campaign to Watergate: Nixon's Communication Image." Western Journal of Communication 38 (1974): 182-189.
Benoit, William L. "Richard M. Nixon's Rhetorical Strategies in His Public Statements on Watergate." Southern Journal of Speech Communication 47 (1982): 192-211.
Benoit, William L., & W. T. Wells. "An analysis of three Image Restoration Discourses on Whitewater." Journal of Public Advocacy 3 (1998): 21-37.
Benson, Thomas W. "To Lend a Hand": Gerald R. Ford, Watergate, and the White House Speechwriters. Rhetoric and Public Affairs 1 (1998): 201-225.
Black, Edwin. "The invention of Nixon." Beyond the Rhetorical Presidency. Ed. Martin J. Medhurst. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1996. 104-121.
Bochin, Hal W. Richard Nixon: Rhetorical Strategist. Great Orators. New York: Greenwood, 1990.
Bostdorff, Denise M. "The Evolution of a Diplomatic Surprise: Richard M. Nixon's Rhetoric on China, 1952-July 15, 1971." Rhetoric and Public Affairs 5 (2002): 31-56.
Brummett, Barry. "Presidential Substance: The Address of August 15,1973." Western Journal of Communication 48 (1975): 249-259.
Carpenter, Ronald A., and Robert V. Seltzer. "Nixon, Patton, and the Silent Majority Sentiment about the Viet Nam War: The Cinematographic Bases of a Rhetorical Stance." Central States Speech Journal 25 (1974): 105-110.
Chapel, William Gage. "Speechwriting in the Nixon Administration." Journal of Communication 26 (1976): 65-72.
Condit, Celeste M. "Nixon's "Fund": Time as Ideological Resource in the "Checkers" Speech." Texts in Context: Critical Dialogues on Significant Episodes in American Political Rhetoric. Ed. Michael C. Leff and Fred J. Kauffeld. Davis, CA: Hermagoras Press, 1989. 219-242.
Farrell, Thomas B. "The Carnival as Confessional: Re-Reading the Figurative Dimension in Nixon's "Checkers" Speech." Texts in Context: Critical Dialogues on Significant Episodes in American Political Rhetoric. Ed. Michael C. Leff and Fred J. Kauffeld. Davis, CA: Hermagoras Press, 1989. 243-252.
Freeman, Douglas N. "Freedom of Speech Within the Nixon Administration." Communication Quarterly 24 (1976): 3-10.
Gibson, James W., and Patricia K. Felkins. "A Nixon Lexicon." Western Journal of Communication 38 (1974): 190-198.
Gonchar, Ruth M., and Dan F. Hahn. "The Rhetorical Predictability of Richard M. Nixon." Communication Quarterly 19 (1971): 3-13.
Gouran, Dennis S. "The Watergate Cover-Up: Its Dynamics and Its Implications." Communication Monographs 42 (1976): 176-186.
Gregg, Richard B., and Gerald A. Hauser. "Richard Nixon's April 30,1970 Address on Cambodia: The "Ceremony" of Confrontation." Communication Monographs 40 (1973): 167-181.
Harrell, Jackson, B. L. Ware, and Wil A. Linkugel. "Failure of Apology in American Politics: Nixon on Watergate." Communication Monographs 42 (1975): 245-261.
Harris, Barbara Ann. "The Inaugural of Richard Milhous Nixon: A Reply to Robert L. Scott." Western Journal of Communication 34 (1970): 231-234.
Hart, Roderick P. "Absolutism and Situation: Prolegomena to a Rhetorical Biography of Richard M. Nixon." Communication Monographs 43 (1976): 204-228.
Hellweg, Susan A., and Steven L Phillips. "A Verbal and Visual Analysis of the 1980 Houston Republican Presidential Primary Debate." Southern Journal of Speech Communication 47 (1981): 23-38.
Hill, Forbes I. "Conventional Wisdom--Traditional Form: The President's Message of November 3, 1969." Quarterly Journal of Speech 58 (1972): 373-386.
Hillbruner, Anthony. "Archetype and Signature: Nixon and the 1973 Inaugural." Central States Speech Journal 25 (1974): 169-181.
Jablonski, Carol J. "Richard Nixon's Irish Wake: A Case of Generic Transference." Central States Speech Journal 30 (1979): 164-173.
Katula, Richard A. "The Apology of Richard M. Nixon." Communication Quarterly 23 (1975): 1-5.
King, Andrew A., and Floyd Douglas Anderson. "Nixon, Agnew, and the "Silent Majority": A Case Study in the Rhetoric of Polarization." Western Journal of Communication 35 (1971): 243-255.
Kissel, Bernard C. "Richard M. Nixon: Definition of An Image." Quarterly Journal of Speech 47 (1960): 357-361.
Klumpp, James F., and Jeffrey K. Lukehart. "The Pardoning of Richard Nixon: A Failure in Motivational Strategy." Western Journal of Communication 42 (1978): 116-123.
Lee, Ronald. "The Featuring of Will in History: A Rhetorical Exploration of Richard Nixon's Post Presidential Writings." Quarterly Journal of Speech 75 (1989): 433-466.
Linkugel, Wil A., and Dixie Lee Cody. "Nixon, McGovern, and the Female Electorate." Communication Quarterly 21 (1973): 25-32.
McGuckin, Henry E. "A Value Analysis of Richard Nixon's 1952 Campaign-Fund Speech." Southern Journal of Speech Communication 33 (1968): 259-269.
Newman, Robert P. "Under the Veneer: Nixon's Vietnam Speech of November 3, 1969." Quarterly Journal of Speech 56 (1970): 168-178.
Padrow, Ben, and Bruce Richards. "Richard Nixon...His Speech Preparation." Communication Quarterly 7 (1959): 11-12.
Porter, Laurinda W. "The White House Transcripts: Group Fantasy Events Concerning the Mass Media." Central States Speech Journal 27 (1976): 272-279.
Rasmussen, Karen. "Nixon and the Strategy of Avoidance." Central States Speech Journal 27 (1973): 272-279.
Rosenfield, Lawrence W. "A Case Study in Speech Criticism: The Nixon-Truman Analog." Communication Monographs 35 (1968): 435-450.
---. "The Victimage of Richard Nixon." Communication Quarterly 24 (1976): 19-23.
Schuetz, Janice. "Communicative Competence and the Beginning of Watergate." Western Journal of Communication 42 (1978): 105-115.
Scott, Robert L. "Response to Barbara Ann Harris." Western Journal of Communication 34 (1970): 235-236.
---. "Rhetoric that Postures: An Intrinsic Reading of Richard M. Nixon's Inaugural Address." Western Journal of Communication 34 (1970): 46-52.
Smith, Craig Allen. "Richard Nixon's 1968 Acceptance Speech as a Model of Dual Audience Adaptation." Communication Quarterly 19 (1961): 15-22.
Stelzner, Hermann G. "The Quest Story and Nixon's November 3, 1969 Address." Quarterly Journal of Speech 57 (1971): 163-172.
Trent, Judith S. "Richard Nixon's Methods of Identification in the Presidential Campaigns of 1960 and 1968. A Content Analysis." Communication Quarterly 19 (1961): 23-20.
Vartabedian, Robert A. "Nixon's Vietnam Rhetoric: A Case Study of Apologia as Generic Paradox." Southern Journal of Speech Communication 50 (1985): 366-381.
Wilson, Gerald L. "A Strategy of Explanation: Richard M. Nixon's August 8, 1974, Resignation Address." Communication Quarterly 24 (1976): 14-20.
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Reagan, Ronald, 1981-1989
The Public Papers of President Ronald W. Reagan. Ronald Reagan Presidential Library.
Aden, R. C. "Entrapment and Escape: Inventional Metaphors in Ronald Reagan's Economic Rhetoric. Southern Communication Journal 54 (1989): 384-401.
Birdsell, David S. "Ronald Reagan on Lebanon and Grenada: Flexibilty and Interpretation in the Application of Kenneth Burke's Pentad." Quarterly Journal of Speech 73 (1987): 267-279.
Bormann, Earnest G. "A Fantasy Theme Analysis of the Television Coverage of the Hostage Release and the Reagan Inaugural." Quarterly Journal of Speech 68 (1982): 133-145.
Crable, Richard E., and Steven L. Vibbert. "Argumentative Stance and Political Faith Healing: 'The Dream Will Come True." Quarterly Journal of Speech 69 (1983): 290-301.
Dallek, Robert. Ronald Reagan: The Politics of Symbolism. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard UP, 1999
Fine, Marlene G., and Leslie K. Davis. "The 1980 Republican Primary Debates: The Transformation of Actor to Scene." Quarterly Journal of Speech 69 (1983): 290-301.
Fisher, Walter R. "Romantic Democracy, Ronald Reagan, and Presidential Heroes." Western Journal of Communication 46 (1982): 299-301.
Gold, Ellen Reid. "Ronald Reagan and the Oral Tradition." Central States Speech Journal 39 (1988): 159-176.
Goodnight, G. Thomas. "Ronald Reagan's Re-formulation of the Rhetoric of War: Analysis of the 'Zero Option,' 'Evil Empire,' and 'Star Wars' Addresses." Quarterly Journal of Speech 72 (1986): 390-414.
Gouran, Dennis S., Randy Y. Hirokawa, and Amy E. Martz. "A Critical Analysis of Factors Related to Decisional Processes Involved in the Challenger Disaster." Central States Speech Journal 37 (1986): 119-135.
Gronbeck, Bruce. "Ronald Reagan's Enactment of the Presidency in His 1981 Inaugural Address." Form, Genre, and the Study of Political Discourse. Ed. Herbert Simons and Aram Aghazarian. Columbia: Univ. of South Carolina Press, 1986. 226-245.
Hankins, Sarah Russell. "Archetypal Alloy: Reagan's Rhetorical Image." Central States Speech Journal 34 (1983): 33-43.
Hart, Roderick P. "Of Genre, Computers, and the Reagan Inaugural." Form, Genre, and the Study of Political Discourse. Ed. Herbert Simons and Aram Aghazarian. Columbia: Univ. of South Carolina Press, 1986. 278-300.
Ivie, Robert L. "Speaking "Common Sense" About the Soviet Threat: Reagan's Rhetorical Stance." Western Journal of Communication 48 (1984): 39-50.
Johannesen, Richard L. "Ronald Reagan's Economic Jeremiad." Central States Speech Journal 37 (1986): 79-89.
Kiewe, Amos, and Davis W. Houck. A Shining City on a Hill: Ronald Reagan's Economic Rhetoric, 1951-1989. Greenwood, 1991.
Klope, David C. "Defusing a Foreign Policy Crisis: Myth and Victimage in Reagan's 1983 Lebanon/Grenada address." Western Journal of Communication 50 (1986): 336-349.
Lewis, William F. "Telling America's Story: Narrative Form and the Reagan Presidency." Quarterly Journal of Speech 73 (1987): 281-293.

Lule, Jack.

"The Political Use of Victims: The Shaping of the Challenger Disaster." Political Communication and Persuasion 7 (1989): 115128.

Mackey-Kallis, Susan, and Dan F. Hahn. "Questions of Public Will and Private Action: The Power of the Negative in the Reagans' 'Just Say No' Morality Campaign." Communication Quarterly 39 (1991): 1-17.
Medhurst, Martin J. "Postponing the Social Agenda: Reagan's Strategy and Tactics." Western Journal of Communication 48 (1984): 262-276.
Meyer, J. "Ronald Reagan and Humor: A Politician's Velvet Weapon." Communication Studies 41 (1990): 76-88.
Mister, Steven M. "Reagan's Challenger Tribute: Combining Generic Constraints and Situational Demands." Central States Speech Journal 37 (1986): 158-165.
Moore, Mark P. "Reagan's Quest for Freedom in the 1987 State of the Union Address." Western Journal of Communication 53 (1989): 52-65.
Muir, William Ker. The Bully Pulpit: The Presidential Leadership of Ronald Reagan. San Francisco: Institute for Contemporary Studies, 1992.
Olson, Kathryn M. "The Controversy Over President Reagan's Visit to Bitburg: Strategies of Definition and Redefinition." Quarterly Journal of Speech 75 (1989): 129-151.
Preston, Thomas C. "Reagan's "New Beginning," Is It the "New Deal of the Eighties?" Southern Journal of Speech Communication 49 (1984): 198-211.
Ritter, Kurt W. "Ronald Reagan and "The Speech": The Rhetoric of Public Relations Politics." Western Journal of Communication 32 (1968): 50-58.
---. Ronald Reagan: The Great Communicator. Greenwood, 1992.
Rowland, Robert C. "The Relationship Between the Public and the Technical Spheres of Argument: A Case Study of the Challenger Seven Disaster." Central States Speech Journal 37 (1986): 136-146.
Rushing, Janice. "Ronald Reagan's "Star Wars" Address: Mythic Containment of Technical Reasoning." Quarterly Journal of Speech 72 (1986): 415-433.
Schleele, Henry Z. "Ronald Reagan's 1980 Acceptance Address: A Focus on American Values." Western Journal of Communication 48 (1984): 51-61.
Seeger, Matthew W. "The Challenger Tragedy and Search for Legitimacy." Central States Speech Journal 37 (1986): 147-157.
Smith, Craig Allen. "Mister Reagan's Neighborhood: Rhetoric and National Unity." Southern Journal of Speech Communication 52 (1987): 219-239.
---. "Ronald Reagan's Attempt to Build a National Majority." Central States Speech Journal 30 (1979): 98-102.
Stuckey, Mary. Getting Into the Game: The Pre-Presidential Rhetoric of Ronald Reagan. New York: Praeger, 1989
---. Playing the Game: The Presidential Rhetoric of Ronald Reagan. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1990.
Woodward, Gary C. "Reagan as Roosevelt: The Elasticity of Psuedo-Populist Appeals." Central States Speech Journal 34 (1983): 44-58.
Zarefsky, David, Carol Miller-Tutzaur, and Frank E. Titzuar. "Reagan's Safety Net for the Truly Needy: The Rhetorical Uses of Definition." Central States Speech Journal 35 (1984): 113-119.
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Roosevelt, Franklin D., 1933-1945
 Franklin Delano Roosevelt: President of the Century. Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt Institute.
Benson, Thomas W. "Inaugurating Peace: Franklin D. Roosevelt's Last Speech." Communication Monographs 36 (1969): 138-147.
Braden, Waldo W., and Earnest Brandenburg. "Roosevelt's Fireside Chats." Communication Monographs 22 (1955): 290-302.
Brandenburg, Earnest. "The Preparation of Franklin D. Roosevelt's Speeches." Quarterly Journal of Speech 35 (1949): 214-221.
Brandenburg, Earnest, and Waldo W. Braden. "Franklin D. Roosevelt's Voice and Pronunciation." Quarterly Journal of Speech 38 (1952): 23-30.
Carson, Herbert L. "Reply to Infamy." Communication Quarterly 10 (1962): 5-6.
Couperthwaite, L. LeRoy. "Franklin D. Roosevelt at Harvard." Quarterly Journal of Speech 38 (1952): 37-41.
Crowell, Laura. "Building the "Four Freedoms" Speech." Communication Monographs 22 (1952): 266-283.
---. "Franklin D. Roosevelts's Audience Persuasion in the 1936 Campaign." Communication Monographs 17 (1952): 48-64.
---. "Roosevelt the Grotonian." Quarterly Journal of Speech 38 (1952): 31-3.
---. "Word Changes Introduced Ad Libitum in Five Speeches by Franklin Delano Roosevelt." Communication Monographs 25 (1952): 229-242.
Gravele, Jack G. "Franklin D. Roosevelt's Speech Preparation During His First National Campaign." Communication Monographs 31 (1964): 437-460.
Houck, Davis W.  F. D. R. and Fear Itself: The First Inaugural Address. College Station: Texas A&M UP, 2002.
---. Rhetoric as Currency: Hoover, Roosevelt, and the Great Depression. College Station: Texas A&M UP, 2001.
Houck, Davis W., and Amos Kiewe. F. D. R.'s Body Politics: The Rhetoric of Disability. College Station: Texas A&M UP, 2003.
King, Robert D. "Franklin D. Roosevelt's Second Inaugural Address." Quarterly Journal of Speech 23 (1937): 439-444.
Oliver, Robert T. "The Speech that Established Roosevelt's Reputation." Quarterly Journal of Speech 31 (1945): 272-274.
Olson, Lester C. "Portraits in Praise of a People: A Rhetorical Analysis of Norman Rockwell's Icons in Franklin D. Roosevelt's "Four Freedoms" Campaign." Quarterly Journal of Speech 69 (1983): 15-24.
Reinsdorf, Walter D. ""This Nation Will Remain Neutral": Franklin D. Roosevelt Uses Inclusive and Exclusive Terms to Justifiy a Policy." Communication Quarterly 22 (1974): 17-21.
Roosevelt, Franklin D. Nothing to Fear: The Selected Addresses of Franklin Delano Roosevelt 1932-1945. Ed. B. D. Zevin. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1946.
Ryan, Halford Ross. "Roosevelt's First Inaugural: A Study of Technique." Quarterly Journal of Speech 65 (1979): 137-149.
---. "Roosevelt's Fourth Inaugural Address: A Study of Its Composition." Quarterly Journal of Speech 67 (1979): 157-166.
---. Franklin D. Roosevelt's Rhetorical Presidency. New York: Greenwood Press, 1988.
Schiffman, Joseph. "Observation on Roosevelt's Literary Style." Quarterly Journal of Speech 35 (1949): 222-226.
Shipman, Fred W. "The Roosevelt Papers." Quarterly Journal of Speech 34 (1948): 137-142.
Stelzner, Hermann G. "'War Message,' December 8, 1941: An Approach to Language." Communication Monographs 33 (1966): 419-437.
Voelker, Charles H. "A Phonetic Study of Roosevelt." Quarterly Journal of Speech 22 (1936): 366-368.
Zelko, Harold P. "Franklin D. Roosevelt's International Speeches." Communication Monographs 16 (1949): 21-40.
---. "Franklin D. Roosevelt's Rhythm in Rhetorical Style." Quarterly Journal of Speech 28 (1942): 138-141.
Roosevelt, Theodore, 1901-1909
Buehler, D. O. "Permanence and Change in Theodore Roosevelt's Conservation Jeremiad." Western Journal of Communication 62 (1998): 439-258.
Friedenberg, Robert. Theodore Roosevelt and the Rhetoric of Militant Decency. Great American Orators 9. Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1990.
Lucas, Stephen E. "The Man with the Muck Rake: A Reinterpretation." Quarterly Journal of Speech 59 (1973): 452-462.
Neuzil, Mark. "Hearst, Roosevelt, and the Muckrake Speech of 1906: A New Perspective." Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 73 (1996): 29-39.
Zyskind, Harold. "A Case Study in Philosophic Rhetoric: Theodore Roosevelt." Philosophy and Rhetoric 1 (1968): 228-254.
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Truman, Harry, 1945-1953.
Archival Research. Truman Presidential Museum and Library.
Brembeck, Cole S. "Harry Truman at the Whistle Stops." Quarterly Journal of Speech 38 (1952): 42-50.
Hazel, Harry C., Jr. "Harry Truman: Practical Crusader." Today's Speech 22 (1974): 25-31.
Hensley, Carl Wayne. "Harry S. Truman: Fundamental Americanism in Foreign Policy Speechmaking, 1945-1946." Southern Speech Communication Journal 40 (1974): 180-190.
Hubbard, Bryan. Reassessing Truman, the Bomb, and Revisionism: The Burlesque Frame and Entelechy in the Decision to Use Atomic Weapons against Japan." Western Journal of Communication 62 (1998): 348-385.
Ivie, Robert L. "Literalizing the Metaphor of Soviet Savagery: President Truman's Plain Style." Southern Speech Communication Journal 51 (1985): 91-105.
McKerrow, Ray E. "Truman and Korea: Rhetoric in the Pursuit of Victory." Central States Speech Journal 28 (1977): 1-12.
Medhurst, Martin J. "Truman's Rhetorical Reticence, 1945-1947: An Interpretive Essay." Quarterly Journal of Speech 74 (1988): 52-70.
Newman, Robert P. Truman and the Hiroshima Cult. East Lansing: Michigan State UP, 1995.
Randolph, Jennings. "The 1948 Presidential Campaign Speakers: Harry S. Truman." Quarterly Journal of Speech 34 (1948): 300-302.
---. "The 1948 Presidential Campaign: Truman--A Winning Speaker." Quarterly Journal of Speech 34 (1948): 421-424.
Rosenfield, Lawrence W. "A Case Study in Speech Criticism: The Nixon-Truman Analog." Communication Monographs 35 (1968): 435-450.
Ryan, Halford Ross. Harry S. Truman: Presidential Rhetoric. Westport, CT: Greenwood P, 1993.
Underhill, William R. "Harry S. Truman: Spokesman for Containment." Quarterly Journal of Speech 47 (1961): 268-274.
White, Eugene E., and Clair R. Henderlider. "What Harry S. Truman Told Us about His Speaking." Quarterly Journal of Speech 40 (1954): 37-42.
Washington, George, 1789-1797
 The Papers of George Washington. Alderman Library, University of Virginia.
Berens, John F. "'Like a Prophetic Spirit': Samuel Davies, American Eulogists, and the Deification of George Washington." Quarterly Journal of Speech 63 (1977): 290-297.
Hostetler, Michael. "Washington's Farewell Address: Distance as Bane and Blessing." Rhetoric and Public Affairs 5 (2002): 393- .
Lucas, Stephen E. "Genre Criticism and Historical Context: The Case of George Washington's First Inaugural Address." Southern Speech Communication Journal 51 (1985): 354-370.
Wilson, Woodrow, 1913-1921.
Kraig, Robert Alexander. Woodrow Wilson and the Lost World of the Oratorical Statesman. College Station: Texas A & M UP, 2004.
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Sources for Primary Texts on the Web
Abraham Lincoln Papers at the Library of Congress: A Collaborative Project. Library of Congress Manuscript Division and Lincoln Studies Center, Knox College.
Jefferson Davis Documents. The Papers of Jefferson Davis. Rice University.